CONTENTS

Europe in 1914
The spark that set off the fire: Sarajevo (June 28, 1914)
The nations mobilize for war
In conformity to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany invades Belgium in order to seize Paris
With Germany's invasion of Belgium, the English enter the War
The Turks come into the war on Germany's side
America stays neutral
The Germans drive on into Northern France - August-September 1917
Simultaneous clashes on the Eastern Front
Missed objectives:  The war takes on a lasting quality
The battle at sea

EUROPE IN 1914

Europe in 1914

THE SPARK THAT SET OFF THE FIRE: 
SARAJEVO (JUNE 28, 1914)

The Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz-Josef followed by the Archduke Franz-Ferdinand

Gavrilo Princip (on right) and fellow Serbian nationalist conspirators
Bildarchiv und Porträtsammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek

Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie just before their assassination

Gavrilo Princip seized after the assassination of the Archduke, June 28, 1914

Gavrilo Princip under guard

THE NATIONS MOBILIZE FOR WAR

The Russians

Czar Nicholas II and the Grand Duke Nicholas
The Imperial War Museum

General Sukhomlinov and staff officers
The Imperial War Museum.

Russians moving to the Eastern Front.

Russian troops on the move



The Germans

Kaiser Wilhelm and von Moltke.

A composite image of Wilhelm II with German generals
Library of Congress

Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria (left) and Kaiser Wilhelm
The Imperial War Museum

von Moltke
von Bulow
von Kluck

The Kaiser reviewing the Imperial Guard

Bavarians reporting for duty with the German Army in Munich

German Artillery Passing through the Brandenburg Gate -- Summer of 1914

Germans being lauded as they head off to the war

Berliners "off to Paris" - 1914

More German soldiers "off to Paris" - 1914


The Austro-Hungarians

von Hotzendorf Inspects Austrian troops


The French

Joffre (center) with Castelnau (left) and Pau (right)

French General Gallieni
The Imperial War Museum

IN CONFORMITY TO THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN, GERMANY INVADES BELGIUM IN ORDER TO SURROUND AND SEIZE PARIS AND THE FRENCH ARMY

Map of the Schlieffen Plan and planned French counter-offensives
United States Military Academy
Wikipedia "Schlieffen Plan"

German General Alfred von Schlieffen


The actual route of the German invasion of Belgium and France

The Route of the German Attack on Belgium and France - 1914
Marshall, p. 47

General von Kluck
The Imperial War Museum

King Albert of Belgium
The Imperial War Museum

.

King Albert of Belgium
The Imperial War Museum

Belgian fortifications at Liege destroyed by German artillery

Belgian Cavalry to the front

Ancient Louvain, destroyed by the Germans in retaliation for civilian resistance to German occupation

Belgian refugees headed to Brussels

Belgian refugees heading to Brussels

German soldiers inspecting a Belgian canon outside Brussels –
blown up by the Belgians to render it useless to the occupying Germans

More ruined Belgian canon

German troops on their way through Brussels

Germans moving through Place Rogier in Brussels

German Cavalry Officers in Brussels

Belgians fleeing across the Schelde River to avoid entrapment in Antwerp by the Germans

Belgians fleeing into Holland

Belgians fleeing the Germans at Ostende

Germans moving canons into place in Antwerp after its fall to the Germans –
to defend against Belgian and English efforts to retake the city

French troops arriving in Ghent

WITH GERMANY'S INVASION OF BELGIUM, THE BRITISH ENTER THE WAR

Englishmen lining up to join the British military.

British War Poster
Imperial War Museum

King George inspecting troops of the British Expeditionary Force

The British taking a German trench at Mons, Belgium - August 1914

Field Marshal Sir John French - Commanding the British Expeditionary Force
The Imperial War Museum

Lord Kitchener (left) and Lloyd George (right)
Kitchener went down with the cruiser Hampshire in June of 1916;
Lloyd-George succeeded him as British Secretary of War in early July


Men all through the British Empire were called to arms

South African troops assembling in Cape Town

THE TURKS COME INTO THE WAR 
ON GERMANY'S SIDE

The German Battleship Goeben
The Imperial War Museum

Admiral Souchon of the Goeben
German Information Center

AMERICA STAYS NEUTRAL

A Pro-Germany march in Chicago - 1914.

THE GERMANS DRIVE ON INTO NORTHERN FRANCE
AUGUST - SEPTEMBER 1914

The Western Front - 1914
Marshall, p. 47


British-French Cooperation on the Western Front

Joffre, Poincare, George V, Foch and Haig
The Imperial War Museum

Sir Henry Wilson with Foche and Col. Huguet

Joffre, French and Haig

French artillery defending against Von Kluck's drive toward Paris 

French troops pass Versailles Palace on their way to the War - August 1914

French World War One poster

MEANWHILE, SIMILAR CLASHES HAVE BEEN
TAKING PLACE ON THE EASTERN FRONT

Tannenberg - August 20-31, 1914

Russians charging German positions

Cossacks on the attack

Hindenburg, Ludendorff and Hoffmann.

Russians surrendering at Tannenberg


The Eastern Front - 1914
Marshall, p. 67

The Austrian Skoda 12” seige gun

Austrian trenches on the Galician front

Russian Cossacks passing through a village of Galicia

Russian Cossacks moving into Przemysl Fortress

Austro-Hungarian troops taking position in the Carpathian Mountains

Serbian troops on the move

Serbian troops moving up to the front against the Austro-Hungarians

King Peter watches his Serb army drive the Austrians from Serbia - December 1914

Austrian troops executing Serbian POWs
National Archives

WITH MISSED OBJECTIVES 
THE WAR TAKES ON A LASTING QUALITY

Marshall, pp. 54-55

German dead at the Marne - 1914

More Frenchmen to the front - October 1914

200,000 French soldiers died in the first month of the war alone.  By October, 2 months later, the glamor of war is gone.
The peasants don't even look up from their work as the soldiers go by.

Arras after German artillery bombardment

Destruction of Rheims, France, by German bombardment – beginning on September 18, 1914

Destruction of Rheims by German bombardment - viewed from the Cathedral

The medieval Cloth Hall at Ypres shelled by the Germans in November 1914

A church near Dixmude (Belgium) destroyed by the Germans;
24 French soldiers sleeping in the church were killed by German shelling

Ortelsburg, East Prussia - burned by the Russians in 1914


The Western Front sets down deep roots
Marshall, p. 78.

The battle lines between the enemy armies stabilize 
into an unmoveable, deadly stalemate - October-November 1914

U.S. Military Academy at West Point

French officers in an underground bunker in northern France

German officers in well dug-in trench works along the Aisne line

The remains of a French church serving as a German hospital


Marshall, p. 81

Russian officers in a bunker in the Carpathian Mountains between Russia and Hungary

THE BATTLE AT SEA

The German U-9 submarine that on September 22, 1914, sank 3 British cruisers:
the Aboukir, the Cressy and the Hogue

The Australian battleship Sydney, which destroyed the German cruiser Emden on November 10, 1914

The German cruiser Emden, disabled by the Australian battleship Sydney

The German battleship Scharnhorst, flagship of the German squadron that sank three British warships
on November 1, 1914.  The Scharnhorst was sunk in a battle with a British fleet on December 8

British boats being sent out to pick up the survivors of sunken ships
during the battle of the Falkland Islands – December 8, 1914

Miles H. Hodges - 2014