THE ENLIGHTENMENT
(Mid 1600s to Late 1700s)

THE PLEA FOR TOLERANCE AND A JUST ORDER (Mid 1600s)

Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

Leviathan (1651)
James Harrington

John Milton (1608-1674)

 Paradise Lost
 Paradise Regained

THE RISE OF MODERN SCIENCE (1500s to 1600s)

Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564)
Concerning the Fabric of the Human Body (1543)
William Gilbert (1540-1603)
 Concerning the Magnet (1600)
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
 The Essays
 The New Atlantis
 The Advancement of Learning 1605)
 Novum Organum (1620)
William Harvey (1578-1657)
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628)

THE DETHRONEMENT OF THE EARTH (Early 1600s)

Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543)

On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres (1543)
Dedication
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (1598 ? 1602)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
The Messenger of the Stars (1610)
The Assayer (1623)
Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632)
Concerning Two New Sciences (1638)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
 Mysterium Cosmographica (1597)
 Astronomia Nova (1609)
 The Harmonies of the World (1609?)
 Epitome of Copernican Astronomy

THE MECHANIZATION/ATOMIZATION OF LIFE (1600s)

THE RATIONALISTS

René Descartes (1596-1650)

Discourse on Method (1637)
Meditations on the First Philosophy (1642)
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
On the Improvement of the Understanding
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
The Monadology
Discourse on Metaphysics
Essay on Dynamics
Philosophical Essays
Principles of Nature and Grace

THE EMPIRICISTS

Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

Christian Huygens (1629-1695)

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) 

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

John Locke (1632-1704)

Two Treatises of Government (1681)
Concerning Toleration (1689, 1690, 1692)
An Essay on Human Understanding (1690)

"NATURAL RELIGION" OR DEISM (Late 1600s to Mid 1700s)

Lord Edward Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648)

John Ray

John Toland

Matthew Tindal

Thomas Woolston

Archbishop Tillotson


ON-GOING CHRISTIAN PIETISM (Late 1600s to Early 1700s)

George Fox

Philip Jacob Spener

Fran?ois F?nelon

Cotton Mather

Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf


THE GREAT AWAKENING

Gilbert Tennent

Jonathan Edwards

John Wesley

Charles Wesley

George Whitfield

Charles Chauncey


LATER DEISM AND EARLY BIBLICAL CRITICISM (Mid to Late 1700s)

Johann Jakob Wettstein

Johann Albrecht Bengal

Jean Astruc

Robert Lowth

Hermann Samuel Reimarus

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Johann Gottfried von Herder

Joseph Priestley

William Paley

Johann Friedrich Eichhorn


THE ADVANCE OF REASON AND SCIENCE (Mid to Late 1700s)

Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations
Pierre Simon de Laplace

Jeremy Bentham


THE FRENCH PHILOSOPHES

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Persian Letters (Lettres persanes, 1721)
The Spirit of the Laws (De l'esprit des lois, 1748)
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract/ Contrat sociale [English / French]
The Origin of Inequality
Denis Diderot

Helvitius (Claude Adrien)

Baron d'Holbach

Condorcet

Outlines of an historical view of the progress of the human mind, 1795)

SKEPTICISM/CRITICAL REVIEW OF REASON (Mid to Late 1700s)

George Berkeley

William Law

David Hume

A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748)
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1750-76)
Political Discourses (1752).
The History of England (1754–62)
Immanuel Kant
Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft) (1781-88)
Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
    (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten) 1785


ANTI-CHRISTIAN HUMANISM (Mid to Late 1700s)

Edward Gibbon

Ethan Allen (1738-1789)

Reason: The Only Oracle of Man (1784)


THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (Late 1700s)

Maximilien Robespierre
"On the Principles of Political Morality" (February 1794)

DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION

Benjamin Franklin

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

The Age of Reason
Alexander Hamilton
 

Thomas Jefferson
 

The Federalist Papers

Edmund Burke

 


THE 19th CENTURY

THE 19th CENTURY - PART ONE:
SCIENTISTS

SCIENCE TAKES ITS FIRST STEPS TOWARD RELATIVITY THEORY

Michael Faraday

James Clerk Maxwell

Albert Michelson and Edward Morley

George Fitzgerald/Hendrik Lorentz

Henri Poincaré

Ernst Mach (1838-1916)

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

 
THE 19th CENTURY - PART TWO:
 PHILOSOPHERS

ROMANTICISM

NOTE:  the distinction between philosophers and novelists is vague!
See also PART FOUR: NOVELISTS, PLAYWRIGHTS, POETS below


Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803)

Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805)

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

Faust (1808) [English / German]
Vicomte François René de Chateaubriande (1768-1848)

William Blake (1757-1827)

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

George Byron (1788-1824)

Don Juan (1821)
Friedrich Schelling (1775-1854)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)


TRANSCENDENTALISM

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Nature (1836)
Addresses and Lectures (1837-1844)
Essays: First Series (1841)
Essays: Second Series(1844)
Poems (1846)
Representative Men (1850) [lectures]
English Traits (1856)
The Conduct of  Life (1860)
May Day and Other Pieces (1867)
Society and Solitude (1870)
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
Civil Disobedience (1849)
Walden: Life in the Woods (1854)
Slavery in Massachusetts (1854)
A Plea for Captain John Brown(1860)
Excursions (1863)
The Maine Woods (1864)
Cape Cod (1865)

IDEALISM

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1700-1831)

Heinrich von Treitschke (1834-1896)

Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882)

Josiah Royce (1855-1916)


EVOLUTIONISM

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck

Charles Lyell (1797- )

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

The Origin of Species (1859)
The Descent of Man (1871)
The Voyage of the Beagle
Gregor Mendel

August Weismann

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)


ELITISM

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

The Birth of Tragedy (1872)
Human, All Too Human (1878)
The Gay Science (1882 and 1887)
Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-1885)
Beyond Good and Evil (1886)
On the Genealogy of Morals (1887)
The Antichrist (1888)

MATERIALISM/MARXISM

Ludwig Feuerbach ( -1872)

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Communist Manifesto (1848)
Capital
      Vol. 1 (1867)
     Vol. 2
     Vol. 3 (1894)
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Principles of Communism
The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
On the History of Early Christianity
Sidney Webb (1859-1947)


EMPIRICISTS AND POSITIVISTS

Robert Malthus (1766-1834)
    An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
David Ricardo (1772-1823)

James Mill (1773-1836)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

 On Liberty (1859)
 Representative Government (1861)
 Utilitarianism (1863)
Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)
Democracy in America (2 vols: 1835 / 1840)
The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856)
C.S. Pierce (1839-1914)

William James (1842-1910)

Radical Empiricism
Principles of Psychology
Varieties of Religious Experience

SOCIAL STUDIES

Edward Burnett Taylor (1832-1917)

William Robertson Smith (1846-1894)

James George Frazer (1854-1941)

Vilfredo Pareto (

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)

The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)

THEOSOPHY AND RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISM

Helena Petrova Blavatsky (1831-1891)

 
THE 19th CENTURY - PART THREE:
THEOLOGIANS
CHRISTIANITY ON THE DEFENSIVE

1. Catholic/Anglican Conservatism

Joseph de Maistre (1754-1821)

John Henry Newman (1801-1890)

Edward Bouverie Pusey (1800-1882)

Henry Edward Manning (1808-1892)

Pope Pius IX (b. 1792; pope: 1846-1878)

Pope Leo XIII

2. Biblical Criticism

Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834)

Ferdinand Christian Bauer (1792-1860)

David Friedrich Strauss (1808-1874)

Albrecht B. Ritschl (1822-1889)

Julius Wellhausen

Adolph von Harnack (1851-1930)

Charles A. Briggs (1841-1913)

Hermann Gunkel (1862-1932)

Wilhelm Bousset

Wilhelm Wrede

Alfred Loisy (1857-1940)

3. Protestant Conservatism

Archibald Alexander (1772-1851)

Charles Hodge (1797-1878)

A. A. Hodge (1823-1886)

Benjamin B. Warfield (1851-1921)

Johannes Weiss (1863-1914)

4. Evangelicalism

William Wilberforce (1759-1833)

William Carey (1761-1834)

Charles Finney (1792-1875)

David Livingstone (1813-1873)

William and Catherine Booth

Charles Haddon Spurgeon (1834-1892)

   All of Grace
Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)

Peter Forsyth (1848-1921)

Billy Sunday

5. The Social Gospel

Washington Gladden (1836-1918)

Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918)

6. Millenialism and the "New Revelation" Religions

William Miller (1782-1849)

Joseph Smith (1805-1844)

Brigham Young (1801-1877)

Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910)

Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916)

R.A. Torrey

 
THE 19th CENTURY - PART FOUR:
NOVELISTS, PLAYWRIGHTS, POETS
NOTE:  the distinction between novelists and philosophers is vague!
See also PART TWO: PHILOSOPHERS above

Jane Austen (1775-1817)

Sense and Sensibility (1811)
Pride and Prejudice  (1813)
Mansfield Park (1814)
Emma (1816)
Northanger Abbey (1817)
Persuasion (1817)
Love and Freindship
Lady Susan
Honoré de Balzac (1779 -1850)
Scenes from Private Life (Scènes de la vie privée) (1829)
Le Dernier chouan (1829)
The Goat-skin (La Peau de chagrin) (1831)
The Vicar of Tours (Le curé de Tours) (1832)
Eugénie Grandet (1833)
Old Father Goriot (Le Père Goriot) (1835)
Ursule Mirouet (1842)
Ressources de Quinola (a play: 1842)
Lost Illusions (Les Illusions perdues) (1843)
Paméla Giraud (a play: 1843)
Modeste Mignon (1844)
The Harlot High and Low
     (Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes) (1847)
Le Cousin Pons (1847)
The Unwitting Actors (Les comédiens sans le savoir) (1847)
La Cousine Bette (1848)
La Marâtre (a play: 1848)
Mercadet ou le Faiseur (a play:1848)
Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837)
The Captive of the Caucasus (poem: 1822)
The Fountain of Bah?esaray(poem: 1824)
The Stone Guest (short play: 1830)
Eugene Onegin (verse novel: 1825-1832)
Boris Godunov (play: 1825)
The Bronze Horseman (poem: 1833)
The Queen of Spades (play: 1833)
To A.P. Kern (poem)
Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
Odes et ballades (collection of poems: 1826)
Les orientales (poems: 1829)
Last Days of a Condemned Man (Le dernier jour d'un condamné) (1829)
The Hunchback of Notre Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris) (1831)
Les feuilles d'automne (poems: 1831)
Les chants du crépuscule (poems: 1835)
Les voix intérieures (poems: 1837)
Ruy Blas (play: 1838)
Les rayons et les ombres (poems: 1840)
Les châtiments (poems: 1853)
Les contemplations (poems: 1856)
La légende des siècles (poems: 1859)
Les misérables (1862)
Ninety-Three (Quatrevingt-treize) (1874)
Religions et religion (1880)
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Sketches by Boz (1836)
Pickwick Papers (1836-1837)
Oliver Twist (1837-1839)
Nicholas Nickleby (1838-1839)
Master Humphrey's Clock (1840-1841)
Old Curiosity Shop (1841)
Barnaby Rudge (1841)
American Notes (1842)
Martin Chuzzlewit (1843-1844)
Christmas Carol (1843)
The Chimes (1844)
Pictures from Italy (1844-1845)
The Cricket on the Hearth (1845)
The Battle of Life (1846)
David Copperfield (1849-1850)
A Child's History of England (1851-1853)
Bleak House (1852-1853)
Hard Times (1854)
Little Dorrit (1857)
Tale of Two Cities (1859)
The Uncommerical Traveller (1860)
Great Expectations (1860-1861)
Our Mutual Friend (1864-1865)
Mystery of Edwin Drood (unfinished, 1870)
George Eliot (1819-1880)
The Lifted Veil (1859)
Adam Bede (1859)
Mill on the Floss (1860)
Silas Marner (1861)
Romola (1863)
Middlemarch (1871-1872)
The Legend of Jubal (1874)
Daniel Deronda (1876)
Scenes of Clerical Life (1858)
Brother Jacob (1864)
Felix Holt, The Radical (1866)
Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life (1846)
Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas (1847)
Mardi: And a Voyage Thither (1849)
Redburn: His First Voyage (1849)
White-Jacket: or, The World in a Man-of-War (1850)
Moby-Dick (1851)
Pierre: or, The Ambiguities (1852)
Israel Potter: His Fifty Years of Exile (1855)
The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade (1857)
Billy Budd, Sailor: An Inside Narrative (1924)
"Bartleby the Scrivener"
Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
Leaves of Grass (1881-1882 edition or collection of poems)
Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)
Poor Folk (1846)
The Double: A Petersburg Poem (1846)
Netochka Nezvanova (1849)
The Village of Stepanchikovo or The Friend of the Family (1859)
The Insulted and Humiliated (1861)
The House of the Dead (1860)
A Nasty Story (1862)
Notes from Underground(1864)
Crime and Punishment (1866)
The Gambler (1867)
The Idiot (1868)
The Possessed (1872)
The Raw Youth or The Adolescent (1875)
The Peasant Marey (short story: 1876)
The Dream of a Ridiculous Man (short story:1877)
The Brothers Karamazov (1880)
The Writer's Diary [journal]
Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)
La Fanfarlo (1847)
The Flowers of Evil (Les Fleurs du mal) (poems: 1857)
Les paradis artificiels (1860)
Réflexions sur Quelques-uns de mes Contemporains (1861)
Le Peintre de la Vie Moderne (1863)
Curiosités Esthétiques, (1868)
L'art romantique, (1868)
Le Spleen de Paris/Petits Poémes en Prose, (1869)
Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)
Madame Bovary (1857)


Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)

Brand (1865)
Peer Gynt (1867)
Emperor and Galilean (Kejser og Galil?er) (1873)
A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem) (1879)
Ghosts (Gengangere) (1881)
An Enemy of the People (En Folkefiende) (1882)
The Wild Duck (Vildanden) (1884)
Hedda Gabler (1890)
The Master Builder (Bygmester Solness) (1892)
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
Childhood (1852)
Boyhood (1854)
Youth (1856)
Sevastopol Stories (1855–56)
The Cossacks (1863)
War and Peace (1865-1869)
Father Sergius (1873)
Anna Karenina (1875-1877)
A Confession (1882)
What I Believe (1884)
Death of Ivan Ilych  (short story: 1886)
The Kreutzer Sonata and other stories (1889)
The Kingdom of God is Within You (1894)
Master and Man and other stories (1895)
The Gospel in Brief (1896)
Letter to the Liberals (1898)
Resurrection (1899)
Hadji Murad (written in 1896-1904, published 1912)
Mark Twain (1835-1910)
Innocents Abroad (1869)
Roughing It (1872)
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
The Prince and the Pauper (1882)
Life on Mississippi (1883)
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889)
Pudd'n'head Wilson (1894)
The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg (1900)
Letters from the Earth (1909 posthumously)
Émile Zola (1840-1902)
Les Rougon-Macquart [20-book series on 2 families: 1871-1893]
Les Trois Villes [Lourdes, Rome, Paris: 1894-1898]
"J'Accuse" L'Aurore, 7 February 1898
Les Quatre Evangiles [1899-1902]
Henry James (1843-1916)
"A Passionate Pilgrim" (1871)
Roderick Hudson (1875)
The American (1877)
"Daisy Miller" (1878)
Washington Square (1880)
The Portrait of a Lady (1881)
The Bostonians (1886)
The Princess Casamassima (1886)
"The Aspern Papers" (1888)
The Tragic Muse (1890)
The Spoils of Poynton (1897)
What Maisie Knew (1897)
"The Turn of the Screw" (1898)
The Wings of the Dove (1902)
"The Beast in the Jungle" (1903)
The Ambassadors (1903)
The Golden Bowl (1904)
"The Jolly Corner" (1908)
Anton Chekhov (1860-1904)
"The Steppe" (short story: 1888)
"Sleepy-Eye" (1888)
"Black Monk" (short story: 1894)
"The Grasshopper" (1892)
The Seagull (play: 1896)
Uncle Vanya (play: 1899-1900)
Three Sisters (play: 1901)
The Cherry Orchard (play: 1904)

 


THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY

 FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART ONE:  SCIENTISTS

THE NEW LOOK OF ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS

1. General Physics

Arthur S. Edington (1882-1944)

Prince Louis de Broglie (1892- )

2. Astronomy

Harlow Shapley

Edwin Hubble

3. Atomic Theory

Marie and Pierre Curie

Thomas Chamberlin

J. J. Thompson

Ernest Rutherford

4. Relativity

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

"On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and
      Transformation of Light"
      ("Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes
      betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt") Annalen der Physik
      (1905)
"On the Motion—Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—
      of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid"
      ("Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme
      geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten
      suspendierten Teilchen") Annalen der Physik (1905)
"On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"
      ("Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper") Annalen der Physik
      (1905)
"Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?"
      ("Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt 
      abhängig?" Annalen der Physik (1905)
Planck's Theory of Radiation and the Theory of Specific Heats (1907)
On the Relativity Principle and its Consequences (1908)
On the Present State of the Radiation Problem (1909)
The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity (1916)
Cosmological Considerations on the General Theory of Relativity
       (1917)
On the Quantum Theory of Radiation (1917)
Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1920)
Quantum Theory of Monatomic Ideal Gases (1925)
Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality
        Be Considered Complete? (1935)
Vesto Slipher

Georges Lemaître

5. Quantum Mechanics

Max Planck (1858-1947)

Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)

  The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory
6. Philosophical Evaluations of Modern Science

James Jeans (1877-1946)

Aldous Huxley (1894-1963)

Henry Margenau


PSYCHOLOGY
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)


SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

Max Weber (1864-1920)

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904-1905)
The remainder of his works were edited posthumously by his wife,
     Marianne Weber:
Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie 3 vol. (1920-1921)*
     (Collected Works on the Sociology of Religion)
Gesammelte politische Schriften (1921)
    (Collected Political Writings)
Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik (1921)*
     (The Rational and Sociological Foundations of Music)
Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (1922 and 1925)
     (Economy and Society)
The above collected writings have been translated and edited into a wide array of different English publications the most important being:
     The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism
      The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism
      Ancient Judaism
      Politics as a Vocation
      Economy and Society
Rudoph Otto (1869-1937)

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)

Claude Levi-Strauss (1908- )

E.E. Evans-Pritchard

Gerardus van der Leeuw (1890-1950)


EVOLUTION THEORY

Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

Julian Huxley (1887-1975)

 
FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART TWO:
PHILOSOPHERS

LOGICAL POSITIVISM

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

I. A. Richards

Moritz Schlick

Rudolf Carnap

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

George Edward Moore (1873-1958)

A. J. Ayer (1910- )

Charles Stevenson


PROCESS PHILOSOPHY/THEOLOGY

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)


LIBERALISM

Woodrow Wilson

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935)

John Dewey (1859-1952)

Humanist Manifesto (1933)


THEOSOPHY AND RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISM

Annie Besant

C. W. Leadbeater

Levi

Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)

H. G. Wells (1866-1946)

Edgar Cayce (1877-1945)

P. D. Ouspensky

Alice Bailey


ELITISM

Oswald Spengler (1880-1936)

Georges Sorel

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924)

Giovanni Gentile

Adolph Hitler

Alfred Rosenberg


EXISTENTIALISM

S?ren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

Karl Jaspers (1883-1969)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

Albert Camus (1913-1960)

 
FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART THREE:
 THEOLOGIANS

CHRISTIANITY RESPONDS

FUNDAMENTALISM

John Gresham Machen (1881-1937)

Christianity and Liberalism (1923)
Cornelius Van Til

CHRISTIAN LIBERALISM

The Auburn Affirmation (1924)

Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878-1969)

Eugene Carson Blake

EVANGELICALISM

Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)

G. K. Chesterton (1874-1936)

C. S. Lewis (1898-1963)

Simone Weil (1909-1943)

"NEO-ORTHODOXY"

Karl Barth (1886-1968)

Emil Brunner (1889-1965)

Reinhold Niebuhr (1893-1971)

H. Richard Niebuhr (1894-1962)

Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)

CHRISTIAN EXISTENTIALISM

Rudolph Bultmann (1884-1976)

Paul Tillich (1886-1966)

ROMAN CATHOLICISM

Maurice de Wulf (1867-1947)

Pope Pius XII (pope: 1939-1958)

Jacques Maritain (1882-1973)

Etienne Gilson (1884-1978)

 
FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART FOUR:
 NOVELISTS, PLAYWRIGHTS, POETS

(NOTE:  the distinction between novelists and philosophers is not precise!!!)

Joseph Conrad (1857-1924)

The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897)
Heart of Darkness (1899)
Lord Jim (1900)
Nostromo (1904)
The Secret Agent (1907)
Under Western Eyes (1911)
Chance (1913)
The Arrow of Gold (1919)
T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
Prufrock and Other Observations (collection of poems: 1917)
     "Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
Poems (1919)
     "Gerontion"
The Sacred Wood (essays: 1920)
      "Tradition and the Individual Talent"
"Waste Land" (poem: 1922)
Sweeney Agonistes (play: 1925)
"The Hollow Men" (poem: 1925)
"The Journey of the Magi" (poem: 1927)
Dante (critical essay: 1929)
"Ash Wednesday" (poem: 1930)
Thoughts After Lambeth (essay: 1931)
Selected Essays, 1917–32 (1932)
      "The Metaphysical Poets"
      "Andrew Marvell"
The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (Harvard Lectures: 1933)
Murder in the Cathedral (play: 1935)
The Idea of a Christian Society (essay: 1939)
Four Quartets (1943)
     Burnt Norton" (1936)
     "East Coker" (1940)
     "The Dry Salvages" (1941)
     "Little Gidding" (1942)
Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (essay: 1948)
The Cocktail Party (play: 1949)
The Confidential Clerk (play: 1953)
The Elder Statesman (play: 1958)
Ezra Pound (

Eugene O'Neill (

Mourning Becomes Electra
Beyond the Horizon
F. Scott Fitzgerald (
Great Gatsby
This Side of Paradise
Ernest Hemmingway (

William Faulkner (

A Rose for Emily
George Orwell (
1984
Animal Farm
Sir William Golding (1911-1993)
Lord of the Flies (1954)
The Inheritors (1955)
Pincher Martin (1956)
Free Fall (1959)
The Spire (1964)

 
FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART FIVE:
POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CRITICS

Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

London to Ladysmith via Pretoria (1900)
The River War (1902)

 


THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY

SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART ONE:
 SCIENTISTS

QUANTUM THEORY/PARTICLE PHYSICS

Richard Feynman

Murray Gell-Mann(1929- )

SCIENTIFIC COSMOLOGY

Fred Hoyle

Hermann Bondi

Arno Penzias/Robert Wilson

Steven Weinberg

Stephen Hawking (1942- )

CHAOS AND SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEMS

Edward N. Lorenz

Stephen Smale

Robert May

Mitchell Feigenbaum

Ilya Prigogine

David Bohm

Erich Jantsch

Benoit Mandelbrot

THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE

Robert Jastrow

John Leslie

EVOLUTION AND THE LIFE SCIENCES

Richard Leakey

J. B. S. Haldane

Stephen Jay Gould

Richard Dawkins

Francis Crick (1916- )

Jacques Monod (1910-1976)

Edward O. Wilson (1929- )

Rupert Sheldrake (1942-

PSYCHOLOGY

Eric Erickson

Carl Rogers

Abraham Maslov

Fritz Perls

Daniel C. Dennett

Roger Penrose

Gregory Bateson

Stanislav Grof

Ken Wilber

P. Pietsch

ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

Joseph Campbell (1904-1987)

Mircea Eliade

Stephen T. Katz

John Pfeiffer

Danah Zohar

Margaret Wheatley

ECOLOGY

Harrison Brown

Paul Erlich

Norman Myer

Stephen H. Schneider/Randi Londer

 
SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART TWO:
 PHILOSOPHERS

1. Philosophy/Theology of Science

Carl Sagan

Kurt Gödel

W. V. O. Quine

Karl R. Popper

Thomas Kuhn

Michael Polanyi

Edward R. Harrison

Richard Rorty

Paul C. W. Davies

John D. Barrow

Robert H. March

Fritz Rohrlich

F. David Peat

Ian Barbour

John Polkinghorne

Arthur Peacocke

Wim B. Drees

Thomas Torrance

Langdon Gilkey

Ernan McMullin

I. Stewart

2. Western Culture and Its Critics

Alexander Solzhenitsyn

Paul Johnson

Allan Bollm

Alasdair MacIntyre

Russell Kirk

Robert N. Bellah

E. F. Schumacher

Chuck Colson

James Dobson

3. Black Liberation

Elijah Mohammed

Malcolm X

Louis Farrakhan

4. Secular Feminism

Carolyn Merchant

Evelyn Fox Keller

Paula Treichler

Francine Wattman Frank

Susan Wolfe

Marija Gimbutas

Ashley Montagu

Riane Eisler

Carol Gilligan

Jean Baker Miller

Nancy Chodorow

Stephanie de Voogd

Barbara Eckman

5. Deconstructionism

Jacques Deridda

6. "God-Is-Deal" Theology

Thomas J. J. Altizer

Paul van Buren

 
SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART THREE:
RELIGIOUS SYNCRETISM / THE NEW AGE MOVEMENT

1. Major Figures in the New Age Movement

Alan Watts

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Carlos Castaneda

Marilyn Ferguson

David Spangler

Donald Keys

Mark Satin

Benjamin Creme

Richard Alpert "Baba Ram Dass"

Jean Houston

The Hollywood Connection

Others

2. The Human Potential Movement

Werner Erhard

M. C. Richards

Jose Silva

3. The Holistic Health Movement

Elizabeth Kübler-Ross

Jeanne Achterberg

Deepak Chopra

Larry Dossey

4. The Ecological or "Green" Movement

James E. Lovelock

Jeremy Rifkin

John Randolph Price

5. The New Age and Science

Isaac Asimov

Fritjof Capra

Gary Zukav

Lawrence LeShan

6. Channeling [Being a "Medium"]

Jane Roberts

J. Z. Knight

Kevin Ryerson

Jon Klimo

7. The Occult

Kathryn Paulsen

Miriam Starhawk

 
SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART FOUR:
 THEOLOGIANS

1. Christian Fundamentalism

Francis Schaeffer

Os Guiness

Carl Henry

Hal Lindsey

Norman L.Geisler

2. Christian Liberalism

Martin Marty

John Shelby Spong

3. Evangelicalism

Gerrit C. Berkouwer

Malcolm Muggeridge

Austin Farrer

Lesslie Newbigin

Helmut Thielicke

J?rgen Moltmann

Wolfhart Pannenberg

Carl Braaten

John R. W. Stott

Lausanne Conference (1974)

F. F. Bruce

R. C. Sproul

Harvey Cox

Billy Graham

4. Roman Catholicism

Pius XII

Jacques Maritain

Etienne Gilson

John XXIII

Hans Küng

Vatican II(1962-1965)

Paul VI

Bernard Lonergan

Karl Rahner

Edward Schillebeeckx

John Paul II

Thomas Merton

Henri J. M. Nouwen

Mother Teresa of Calcutta

CHRISTIAN SOCIAL ACTIVISM/LIBERATIONISM

Martin Luther King Jr.

World Council of Churches
    Uppsala Conference (1968)
    Bankok Conference on World Mission and Evangelicalism (1973)
    Nairobi Conference (1975)
    Vancouver Conference (1983)

Second Latin American Episcopal Conference

Archbishop Oscar Romero

Camillo Torres

Ernst Bloch

Gustavo Gutiérrez

José Porfiro Miranda

Jon Sobrino

Leonardo Boff

Juan Luis Segundo

Jose Miguez Bonino

The Kairos Document (South African)

James H. Cone

CHRISTIAN FEMINISM

Mary Daly

Rosemary Radford Reuther

Letty M. Russel

Virginia Ramey Mollenkott

Jacquelyn Grant White

Susan Griffin

Carol P. Christ

Elaine Pagels

CHRISTIAN UNIVERSALISM

Matthew Fox

Thomas Berry

John Hick

PROSPERITY AND POWER EVANGELISM

Norman Vincent Peale

Kenneth Hagan

Kenneth Copeland

Freddie Price

Benny Hinn

John Wimber

Bill Hybels

PROCESS THEOLOGY

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Charles Hartshorne

W. Norman Pittenger

John B. Cobb, Jr.

THE JEWISH VOICE

Abraham Joshua Heschel

Ellie Wiesel

 
SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY - PART FIVE: 
NOVELISTS, PLAYWRIGHTS, POETS

FILM DIRECTORS

Steven  Spielberg (1947-

Jaws (1975)
Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)
Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
E.T. (1982)
The Color Purple (1985)
Empire of the Sun (1987)
Jurassic Park (1993)
Schindler's List (1993)
Amistad (1997)
Saving Private Ryan (1998)
(co-produced with Tom Hanks: Band of Brothers - 2001)
Catch Me If You Can (2002)
Minority Report (2002)
Munich (2005)
George Lucas

Francis Ford Coppola

Martin Scorsese

John Milius

Brian De Palma

François Truffaut

Stanley Kubrick

Dr. Strangelove
A Clockwork Orange

 


NON-WESTERN CLASSICS

CONFUCIANIST - CHINESE

Confucius (551-479 BC) - harmony with all being through ethical self-discipline
     (jen) of the sage

The Analects
Mencius (371-289? BC) - stressed inner spiritual harmony with the universe of
     the sage
Book of Mencius
Hsun-tzu (fl. 298-238 BC) - stressed the importance of ritual action of the sage
     Chung-Yung ("The doctrine of the Mean") - the sage achieves virtuous harmony
     with Heaven and Earth

TAOIST

Lao-Tzu (550 BC?) - oneness with the Universe by following the way of Nature - a
     mystical process minimizing or avoiding confining social structures, such as
     those which Confucianism stresses

Tao-te Ching


Chuang-Tzu (500 BC?)

The Chuang-Tzu


T'ao Ch'ien (365-427 AD)

The Huai-nan-tzu
The Lieh-tzu

NEO-CONFUCIANIST
(Blend of Classic Confucianism with Taoism and Buddhism)

Chang Tsai (1020-1077) - the world relates to the sage as his own family

Chu Hsi (1130-1200) - ethical self-training gradually achieves jen for the sage

Wang Yang-ming(1472-1529) - unity of our minds with the mind of the Tao
     dramatically invites jen

Lin Chao-en (1517-1598) - successfully blends Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism


HINDU - EARLY


The Vedas

Rig Veda (1000 Hymns or "Songs of Knowledge")


The Brahmanas


 HINDU - VEDANTA MONIST
Vedanta ("End of the Veda")

1.  The Upanishads (500s BC) - oneness with the Ultimate Ground of Being through Yoga
Maitri Upanishad
Isha Upanishad
Mindaha Upanishad
Shivatashvatara Upanishad


2.  The Sutras  (300 BC - 300 AD)

The Ramayana - Rama (one of 10 incarnations or avatars of Vishnu) personifies righteousness
The Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita ("Song of the Lord") - Arjuna's conversation with his
     charioteer (Vishnu)
Brahma Sutra (ca. 500 AD) - also known as the Vedanta Sutra
3.  The Krishna cycle
Bhagavata Purana - bhakti emphasis on union with Krishna - portrayed
     as a cow-herd
4.  Comentators or interpreters of Vedanta
Shankara (ca. 788-820 AD)
Ramanuja (d. 1137)
Madhva (1197-1276)

HINDU - ATHEIST

The Charvakas


JAIN

Vardhamma Mahavira (599 - 527 BC)  - Knowledge through right conduct; ahimsa:  respect for all life; speaking the truth; honesty; chastity; non-attachment ot worldly things

SIKH


BUDDHIST

Buddha (ca. 563-483 BC)
The Pali canon (1st century BC)

     The Tripitaka ("triple basket") -  main writings of Theravada Buddhism

Vanaya-Pitaka - the basket of order (life of Buddha; rules of monastic order)
Sutta-Pitaka - the basket of instructions (teachings of Buddha and early monks)
Abhidhamma-Pitaka - the basket of higher teaching
     Milindapanho (Questions of King Milinda) - 1st century AD
     Visuddhimagga (The Way to Purity) - written in 400s AD by
          Buddhaghosa
     Abhidhammattha-sangaha (Summary of the meaning of Higher 
          Teaching) by Anruddha in the 1000s
     Prajnaparamita-Sutra - (Guide to Perfect Wisdom) - explaining the
          state of being a Buddha

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN

Hammurabi (ca. 1810 BC?–1750 BC)

The Code of Laws

ZOROASTRIAN - PERSIAN

Zoroaster

Parsis of India (mostly located in Bombay)


ISLAM

Muhammad of Mecca (570-632)
Qur'an (trans. Abdullah Yusuf Ali)

Miles H. Hodges - 2011