by Thomas Aquinas

Translated Fathers of the English Dominican Province
(New Advent)


Sacred Doctrine

    1. The nature and extent of sacred doctrine.

The One God

    2. The existence of God.
    3.  The simplicity of God
    4.  The perfection of God
    5.  Goodness in general
    6.  The goodness of God: 
    7.  The infinity of God
    8.  The omnipresence of God
    9.  The immutability of God
  10.  The eternity of God
  11.  The unity of God
  12.   How God is known by us 
  13.  The names of God
   14.  God's knowledge
   15.  The ideas which exist in His knowledge.
   16.  Truth in God
   17.  Falsity in God
   18.  The life of God
   19.  God's will 
   20.  The love of God
   21.  God's justice and mercy
   22.  Providence
   23.  Predestination 
   24.  The book of life
   25.  The power of God 
   26.  The divine beatitude

The Blessed Trinity

   27.  The question of origin or procession
   28.  The relations of origin relations of origin
   29.  The signification of the word "person". 
   30.  The number of the persons, 
   31.  The diversity, and similitude, and the like of the persons. 
   32.  Our knowledge of the persons.
   33.  The person of the Father
   34.  The person of the Son
   35.  The Image
   36.  The person of the Holy Spirit, 
   37.  The name of the Holy Spirit: Love 
   38.  The Name of the Holy Spirit: as Gift
THE THREE COMPARED: The person in reference to the essence (39), with the relations or properties (40), or to the notional acts (41). The equality and likeness (42) of the persons. Their mission (43).


PRODUCTION: The first cause (44) of beings. Creation (45), which is the mode of emanation of creatures from the first cause. The beginning of the duration (46) of creatures.
DISTINCTION: The distinction of things in general(47). The distinction of good and evil: evil (48) and its cause (49). The distinction of creatures -- spiritual (or angels), corporeal, and man (which is both) -- is outlined below.

The Angels

SUBSTANCE: Their substance considered absolutely (50), and in relation to corporeal things, such as bodies (51) and locations (52). Their local movement (53).
INTELLECT: His power (54) and medium (55) of knowledge. The immaterial (56) and material (57) objects known. The manner (58) whereby he knows them.
WILL: The will itself (59) and its movement, which is love (60).
ORIGIN: How they were brought into natural existence (61) and perfected in grace (62). How some of them became wicked: Their sins (63) and punishment (64).

The Six Days

CREATION: The work of creation (65).
DISTINCTION: The ordering (66) of creation towards distinction. The work of distinction in itself: The first (67), second (68) and third (69) days.
ADORNMENT: The fourth (70), fifth (71), sixth (72) and seventh (73) days.
GENERAL: All seven days (74) in common.


ESSENCE: The nature of the soul in itself (75), and its union with the body (76).
POWER: The powers of the soul in general (77) Those powers which are a preamble to the intellect (78). The intellectual (79) powers. The appetitive powers in general (80), and specifically: sensuality (81), the will (82) and free-will (83).
OPERATIONS: We consider the will in the second part of this work, which deals with morals. Here we treat of the acts of the intellect. How the soul, when united to the body, understands corporeal things beneath it: Specifically, through what (84) does it know them? How (85) does it know them? What (86) does it know in them? When united to the body, how does the soul know itself (87)? When united to the body, how does it know immaterial substances (88) which are above it? And how does the soul understand when separated from the body (89)?
ORIGIN (PRODUCTION): The production of man's soul (90) and body (91), and the production of the woman (92).
ORIGIN (END): The end (93) of man's production, inasmuch as he is "the image and likeness of God".
ORIGIN (FIRST MAN): The state of Adam's soul: His intellect (94); the righteousness (95) of his will and the use of righteousness as regards his dominion over things (96). The state of Adam's body: Preservation of the individual (97) and of the species (98) through generation. The state of the offspring's body (99), virtue (100) and knowledge (101).
ORIGIN (HOME): His home, which is paradise (102).

The Government of Creatures

GENERAL: The government of things in general (103) and the specific effects (104) of this government.
GOD: How God (105) changes creatures.
SPIRITS: How an angel acts on another angel, through enlightenment (106) and speech (107); the hierarchies of good (108) and evil (109) spirits. How an angel acts on a bodily creature (110). How an angel acts on man by his natural power (111) and as a minister of God (112). The guardianship (113) of the good angels and the assaults (114) of the demons.
BODIES: How bodies change: the action (115) of the bodily creature, and fate (116), which is ascribed to certain bodies.
MAN: How man -- who is both body and spirit -- changes in general (117). The production of man from man as to the soul (118) and to the body (119).

Man's Last End

GENERAL: Man's last end (1). Those things in which man's happiness (2) consists. What (3) is happiness, what is required (4) for it, and its attainment (5).

Human Acts

GENERAL: The voluntary and the involuntary (6) acts, and their circumstances (7).
WILL: Its object (8), mover (9) and manner of movement (10). Its other acts with regard to the ends: enjoyment (11) and intention (12). Its acts with regard to the means: choice (13), counsel (14), consent (15) and use (16). The acts (17) commanded by the will.
GOOD AND EVIL: The goodness and malice of human acts in general (18), of the interior act of the will (19), and in external human actions (20). The consequences (21) of human actions by reason of their goodness and malice.


GENERAL: The subject (22) of the soul's passions. Their differences (23), goodness and malice (24) and relations (25).
CONCUPISCIBLE: Love (26), its cause (27) and effects (28). Hatred (29). Concupiscence (30). Delight (31) and its cause (32), effects (33), and goodness or malice (34). Pain or sorrow (35) and its causes (36), effects (37), remedies (38), and goodness or malice (39).
IRASCIBLE: Hope and despair (40). Fear (41) and its object (42), cause (43) and effects (44). Daring (45). Anger (46) and its cause (47) and effects (48).


GENERAL: Habits in general (49), and their subject (50), cause (51), increase (52), decrease (53), and distinction (54).
VIRTUES: The essence (55) and subject (56) of virtues. The intellectual (57) virtues and their difference (58) with the moral virtues. The moral virtues in relation to the passions (59) and to one another (60). The cardinal (61) and theological (62) virtues. The cause (63) and mean (64) of virtue. The connection (65) of and equality (66) among the virtues. Their duration (67) after this life.
RELATED TO VIRTUES: The gifts (68), beatitudes (69) and fruits of the Holy Ghost (70).

Vice and Sin

GENERAL: Vice and sin in themselves (71). Their distinction (72), comparison (73) and subject (74).
CAUSE: Their general cause (75). Their internal causes such as ignorance (76), passion (77) and malice (78). Their external causes (79) such as the devil (80) and man himself (81). Original sin: its essence (82) and subject (83). Sin caused by other sins (84).
EFFECTS: The effects of sin: The corruption of nature (85), the stain of sin (86), and the debt of punishment (87) due to venial and mortal sin (88) in general, and venial sin (89) in particular.


GENERAL: The essence (90), various kinds (91), and effects (92) of law.
ETERNAL LAW: The eternal law (93).
NATURAL LAW: The natural law (94).
HUMAN LAW: Human law (95) and its power (96) and mutability (97).
OLD LAW: The old law (98) and its precepts (99): moral (100), ceremonial (101) and judicial (104). The causes (102) and duration (103) of the ceremonial precepts. The reason (105) for the judicial precepts.
NEW LAW: The law of the Gospel (106) or new law and its comparison with the old (107). What (108) the new law contains.


GENERAL: The necessity (109) and essence (110) of grace. The division (111) of grace. Its cause (112) and effects (113). Merit (114).



FAITH ITSELF: The object of faith (1). The act of faith (2), especially the outward act of faith (3). The virtue of faith (4) itself. Those (5) who have faith. The cause (6) and effects (7) of faith.
GIFTS: The corresponding gifts of understanding (8) and knowledge (9).
VICES: Unbelief in general (10), heresy (11), apostasy (12), blasphemy in general (13) and against the Holy Ghost (14). The vices opposed to knowledge and understanding (15).
PRECEPTS: The precepts (16) of faith, knowledge and understanding.


GENERAL: Hope in itself (17). The subject (18) of hope. The gift of fear (19), and the opposing vices of despair (20) and presumption (21). The precepts (22) relating to hope and fear.


CHARITY ITSELF: Charity in itself (23), its subject (24), its object (25), and its order (26).
ACTS: The principal act of charity, which is to love (27). The interior acts of joy (28), peace (29), and mercy (30). The exterior acts of beneficence (31), almsdeeds (32), and fraternal correction (33).
VICES: Hatred (34), which is opposed to charity itself. Sloth (35) and envy (36), which are opposed, respectively, to our own joy and the joy of our neighbor. Vices opposed to peace: discord (37), contention (38), schism (39), war (40), strife (41) and sedition (42). Scandal (43), the vice opposed to beneficence.
PRECEPTS: The precepts (44) of charity.
GIFT: The corresponding gift of wisdom (45) and folly (46) which is opposed to wisdom.


PRUDENCE ITSELF: The virtue of prudence (47)
PARTS: The parts (48) of prudence. Each quasi-integral part (49) of prudence. The subjective parts (50) of prudence; especially the prudence with which a man rules himself (see 47), and that with which he rules others (50). The quasi-potential parts (51) of prudence, that is, the related virtues.
GIFT: The corresponding gift of prudence, which is counsel (52).
VICES: The vices opposed to prudence, some of which are obviously opposed such as imprudence (53) and negligence (54) which is opposed to solicitude; and others which bear a false resemblance (55) to prudence.
PRECEPTS: The precepts concerning prudence (56)


JUSTICE ITSELF: Right (57), justice (58), injustice (59) and judgment (60).
PARTS (GENERAL): The distinction between commutative and distributive justice (61). Restitution (62), which would seem to be an act of commutative justice.
VICES (DISTRIBUTIVE): Respect of persons (63), which is opposed to distributive justice.
VICES (INVOLUNTARY COMMUTATIONS): Injury of a neighbor against his will can be done by deed -- murder (64), bodily injury (65) and theft and robbery (66) -- or by word. Verbal injuries in judicial proceedings can be inflicted by the judge (67), the accuser (68), the defendant (69), the witnesses (70), or by the defending attorney (71). Verbal injuries inflicted extrajudicially include reviling (72), backbiting (73), tale-bearing (74), derision (75), and cursing (76).
VICES (VOLUNTARY COMMUTATIONS): Sins that are committed in relation to voluntary commutations include cheating (77) in buying and selling, and usury (78) in loans. In connection with the other voluntary commutations no special kind of sin is to be found distinct from rapine and theft.
PARTS (QUASI-INTEGRAL): The quasi-integral parts of justice -- "do good" and "avoid evil" (79) -- and the opposite vices.
CONNECTED VIRTUES (GENERAL): The quasi-potential parts of justice are the virtues connected with justice, in general (80) and specifically.
CONNECTED VIRTUES (RELIGION): Religion in itself (81). Its principal, interior acts which are devotion (82) and prayer (83). Its secondary, external acts of latria through bodily reverence (84). The offering of things to God such as sacrifices (85), oblations and first-fruits (86), tithes (87) and vows (88). The taking of things from God, such as sacraments (see the Third Part) and the taking of His Name by adjuration (90), in prayer (83) or praise (91), or in order to confirm an assertion (89). The vice of superstition (92), which is opposed by excess, and includes idolatry (94), divinations (95), observances (96), and undue worship (93) to the true God. The vice of irreligion, which is opposed by deficiency, and includes temptation of God (97), perjury (98), sacrilege (99) and simony (100).
CONNECTED VIRTUES (PIETY): Piety (101) and its opposite vices.
CONNECTED VIRTUES (OBSERVANCE): Observance itself (102). Dulia (103) and obedience (104), opposed by disobedience (105). Gratitude (106) opposed by ingratitude (107). Vengeance (108). Truth (109), which is opposed by lying (110), dissimulation and hypocrisy (111), boasting (112), and irony (113). Friendliness or affability (114), which is opposed by flattery (115) and quarreling (116). Liberality (117), which is opposed by covetousness (118) and prodigality (119).
CONNECTED VIRTUES (EPIKEIA): The virtue of epikeia (120) or equity.
GIFT: Piety (121), the corresponding gift.
PRECEPTS: The precepts (122) of justice.


FORTITUDE ITSELF: The virtue of fortitude (123) and martyrdom (124), its principle act.
VICES: The vices opposed to fortitude, which are fear (125), fearlessness (126), and daring (127).
PARTS: Its parts in general (128). Specifically, magnanimity (129) and its opposing vices of presumption (130), ambition (131) and vainglory (132) -- which are all opposed by excess -- and pusillanimity (133), which is opposed by deficiency. Magnificence (134) and its opposed vices (135). Patience (136) and its opposed vices. Perseverance (137) and its opposed vices (138).
GIFT: The corresponding gift (139) of fortitude.
PRECEPTS: The precepts (140) of fortitude.


TEMPERANCE ITSELF: The virtue of temperance (141) and its contrary vices (142).
PARTS (IN GENERAL): The parts of temperance in general (143).
PARTS (INTEGRAL): Shamefacedness (144) and honesty (145).
PARTS (SUBJECTIVE): Abstinence (146) from food and drink, and its act which is fasting (147), and its opposite vice which is gluttony (148). Sobriety (149) and its contrary vice, drunkenness (150). The virtue of chastity (151) and its part which is virginity (152), and its contrary vice which is lust (153). The parts of lust (154).
PARTS (POTENTIAL): Continence (155) and its opposite, incontinence (156). The virtues of clemency and meekness (157) and their contrary vices: anger (158) that is opposed to meekness and cruelty (159) that is opposed to clemency. Modesty (160) in general and its species: Humility (161) and its opposite, pride (162). Adam's sin which was pride: The sin itself (163), the punishments (164) of this first sin, and the temptation (165). Studiousness (166) and its opposite vice, curiosity (167). Modesty in words or deeds (168) and in outward attire (169).
PRECEPTS: The precepts (170) of temperance.

Acts Which Pertain to Certain Men

GIFTS (KNOWLEDGE): Prophecy itself (171) and its cause (172), mode (173), and division (174). Rapture (175).
GIFTS (SPEECH): The grace of tongues (176) and the gratuitous grace consisting in words (177).
GIFTS (MIRACLES): The grace of miracles (178).
DIVERSITIES OF LIFE: The division of life into active and contemplative (179). The contemplative (180) and active (181) lives specifically. The contemplative and active lives compared (182).
STATES OF LIFE: Man's various duties and states in general (183). The state of perfection in general (184). The episcopal state (185). The religious state: its requirements (186), its proper realm (187), its variations (188) and the entrance into religious life (189).


The Incarnation

GENERAL: The fitness (1) of the Incarnation. The union itself (2).
PERSON: The Person (3) assuming the nature.
NATURE (ASSUMED): The human nature (4): its parts (5) and order (6) of the assumption.
NATURE (CO-ASSUMED): Christ's perfections in grace as an individual man (7) and as Head of the Church (8); of the grace of union (see 2) we have already spoken. Christ's knowledge in general (9) and in particular His divine (see I:14), beatific (10), infused (11) and acquired (12) knowledge. The power (13) of Christ's soul. His defects in body (14) and soul (15).
CONSEQUENCES (CONCERNING CHRIST): The communication of idioms (16) which belong to Christ in being and becoming. The unity of His knowledge (see 9), nativity (see 35), being (17), will (18), and operation (19).
CONSEQUENCES (IN RELATION TO HIS FATHER): Some things -- subjection (20), prayer (21), and priesthood (22) -- are predicated of Him because of His relation to the Father. Other things -- His adoption (23) and predestination (24) -- may be predicated of Him because of the Father's relation to Him.
CONSEQUENCES (IN RELATION TO US): Our adoration (25) of Christ. How He is our Mediator (26).

The Life of Christ

 CONCEPTION: The sanctification (27), virginity (28), espousals (29), and Annunciation (30) of the mother who conceived Him. The matter (31), author (32) and manner (33) of His conception. The perfection (34) of the child conceived.
BIRTH: His birth (35) and manifestation (36). His circumcision (37) and observance (37) of other legal observances.
BAPTISM: The baptism of John in general(38). The baptizing of Christ (39).
PUBLIC LIFE: His manner of life (40). His temptation (41). His doctrine (42). His miracles in general (43) and specifically (44), with a focus on His transfiguration (45).
PASSION: The Passion itself (46). Its efficient cause (47) and how (48) it was brought about. Its effects (49).
DEATH: His death (50), burial (51) and descent into Hell (52).
RESURRECTION: Christ's Resurrection in itself (53). The quality (54) of the Person rising. The manifestation (55) of the Resurrection and its causality (56).
ASCENSION: His Ascension (57) and His sitting at the right hand (58) of the Father. His judiciary power (59).


GENERAL: Definition (60) of a sacrament. The necessity (61) of the sacraments and their effects: principally grace (62), and secondarily a character (63). Their causes, both as to authorship and as to ministration. Their number (65).


BAPTISM ITSELF: The sacrament itself (66). The minister (67), recipients (68) and effect (69) of this sacrament.
PREPARATION: Circumcision (70), which preceded Baptism. Catechism and Exorcism (71), which accompany Baptism.


GENERAL: The sacrament of Confirmation (72).

The Holy Eucharist

GENERAL: The sacrament itself (73). The matter of this sacrament: its species (74), the transubstantiation (75), the real presence (76) and the accidents (77) of bread and wine. The form (78) and effects (79) of this sacrament. The recipient in general (80) and at its institution (81). The minister (82) and the rite (83) of this sacrament.


PENANCE ITSELF: Penance as a sacrament (84) and as a virtue (85).
EFFECTS: Pardon of mortal (86) and venial (87) sins. The return (88) of sins already forgiven. The recovery of virtues (89).
PARTS (GENERAL): The parts of Penance in general (90).


Editor's Note: St. Thomas died in the middle of his treatise on Penance. The remainder of the Summa Theologica, known as the Supplement, was compiled probably by his companion and friend Fra Rainaldo da Piperno, and was gathered from St. Thomas's commentary on the Fourth Book of the Sentences of Peter Lombard.

Penance (continued)

PARTS (CONTRITION): Definition (1) of contrition. Its object (2), degree (3), duration (4) and effect (5).
PARTS (CONFESSION): Its necessity (6), nature (7), minister (8), quality (9), and effect (10). The seal (11) of confession.
PARTS (SATISFACTION): Its nature (12), possibility (13), quality (14), and means (15).
RECIPIENTS: Recipients (16) of the sacrament of Penance.
KEYS (GENERAL): The keys: their nature and meaning (17), effect (18), ministers (19) and recipients (20).
KEYS (EXCOMMUNICATION): Definition, congruity and cause (21) of excommunication. Who (22) can excommunicate or be excommunicated. Communication (23) with excommunicated persons. Absolution (24) from excommunication.
KEYS (INDULGENCES): Indulgences in itself (25). Those who grant (26) and receive (27) indulgences.
RITE: The solemn rite (28) of Penance.

Extreme Unction

GENERAL: Its essentials and institution (29), effects (30), minister (31), recipient (32) and repetition (33).

Holy Orders

GENERAL: The essence, quiddity, and parts (34) of the sacrament. Its effect (35) and recipients (36). The difference (37) of Orders. Those who confer (38) Orders. Impediments (39) and other things (40) connected with Orders.


GENERAL: Matrimony as an office of nature (41) and as a sacrament (42). The betrothal (43). The nature of matrimony (44).
EFFICIENT CAUSE: Its efficient cause, namely the consent: both in itself (45) and confirmed (46) by oath or carnal intercourse. Compulsory and conditional (47) consent. The object (48) of the consent.
BLESSINGS: The blessings (49) of matrimony.
IMPEDIMENTS: The impediments of marriage in general (50) and in particular: error (51), slavery (52), vows and orders (53), consanguinity (54), affinity (55), spiritual relationship (56), legal relationship by adoption (57), impotence, spell, insanity, incest, and defective age (58), disparity of worship (59), and wife-murder (60). Impediments which supervene marriage: A solemn vow (61), which affects an unconsummated marriage; and fornication (62), which affects a consummated marriage.
THINGS ANNEXED: Second marriages (63). The marriage debt (64), the plurality of wives (65), bigamy (66), the bill of divorce (67), and illegitimate children (68).

The Resurrection

PRECEDING THE RESURRECTION: Where souls go (69) after death. The quality (70) of separated souls, and the punishment by fire. How the living assist the departed souls (71). How the saints assist the living (72). The signs preceding (73) the last judgment. The world's final conflagration which will precede the Second Coming.
ACCOMPANYING THE RESURRECTION: The resurrection itself (75). Its cause (76), its time and manner (77), and its term "wherefrom" (78). The conditions of the good and wicked in common: their identity (79), integrity (80), and quality (81). The conditions of the good: impassibility (82), subtlety (83), agility (84), and clarity (85). The conditions of the bodies of the wicked (86).
JUDGMENT FOLLOWING THE RESURRECTION: The knowledge (87) which men will have at the judgment. The time and place (88) of the last judgment. Who (89) will judge and who will be judged. The form (90) of the Judge.
FOLLOWING THE JUDGMENT: The state and quality of the world (91). The state of the blessed: their beatific vision (92), their happiness and mansions (93), their relations with the damned (94), their gifts (95) and their crowns (96). The state of the wicked: punishment of their bodies (97) by fire, and of their will and intellect (98). God's justice and mercy (99) in regard to the damned.


APPENDIX I: The quality of souls who die with original sin only (1), and of those in purgatory (2).
APPENDIX II: Two additional articles on purgatory (1).

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