by William Bradford


Book Two / pp. 227 - 266

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                227

But he perverts ye truth in this as in other things,

for ye Lord" hath as well appoynted them to con-

verte, as to feede in their several I charges; and he

wrongs ye church to say other wise.  Againe, he

saith he was taxed for preaching to all in gen-

erall.  This is a meere untruth, for this dissembler

knows that every Lords day some are appointed to

visite suspected places, & if any be found idling and

neglecte ye hearing of ye word, (through idlnes or

profanes,) they are punished for ye same.  Now to

procure all to come to hear, and then to blame him

for preaching to all, were to play ye mad men.

      [129]  6.  Next (he saith) they have had no min-

istrie since they came, what soever pretences they

make, &c.  We answer, the more is our wrong, that

our pastor is kept from us by these mens means,

and then reproach us for it when they have done. 

Yet have we not been wholy distitute of ye means of

salvation, as this man would make ye world beleeve;

for our reved Elder hath laboured diligently in dis-

pencing the word of God unto us, before he came;

and since hath taken equalle pains with him selfe

in preaching the same; and, be it spoaken without

ostentation, he is not inferriour to Mr. Lyford ( &

some of his betters) either in gifts or larning,

though he would never be perswaded to take higher

office upon him.  Nor ever was more pretended in

this matter.  For equivocating, he may take it to

228                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

him selfe; what ye church houlds, they have mani-

fested to ye world, in all plaines, both in open

confession, doctrine, & writing.

     This was ye sume of ther answer, and hear I will

let them rest for ye presente.  I have bene longer

in these things then I desired, and yet not so long

as the things might require, for I pass many things

in silence, and many more deserve to have been

more largly handled.  But I will returne to other

things, and leave ye rest to its place.

     The pinass that was left sunck & cast away near

Damarins-cove, as is before showed, some of ye fish-

ing maisters said it was a pity so fine a vessell

should be lost, and sent them word that, if they

would be at ye cost, they would both directe them

how to waygh her, and let them have their car-

penters to mend her.  They thanked them, & sente

men aboute it, and beaver to defray ye charge,

(without which all had been in vaine).  So they gott

coopers to trime, I know not how many tune of

cask, and being made tight and fastened to her at

low-water, they boyed her up; and then with many

hands hald her on shore in a conveniente place wher

she might be wrought upon; and then hired sundrie

carpenters to work upon her, and other to saw

planks, and at last fitted her & got her home.  But

she cost a great deale of money, in thus recovering

her, and buying riging & seails for her, both now

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                229

and when before she lost her mast; so as she proved

a chargable vessell to ye poor plantation.  So they

sent her home, and with her Lyford sent his last

letter, in great secrecie; but ye party intrusted with

it gave it ye Govr.

     The winter was passed over in ther ordinarie

affairs, without any spetiall mater worth noteing;

saveing that many who before stood something of

from ye church, now seeing Lyfords unrighteous deal-

ing, and malignitie against ye church, now tendered

them selves to ye church, and were joyned to ye

same; proffessing that it was not out of ye dislike

of any thing that they had stood of so long, but a

desire to fitte them selves beter for such a state, and

they saw now ye Lord cald for their help.  [130]

And so these troubls prodused a quite contrary effecte

in sundrie hear, then these adversaries hoped for. 

Which was looked at as a great worke of God, to

draw on men by unlickly means; and that in reason

which might rather have set them further of.  And

thus I shall end tills year.

Anno Dom: 1625.

     AT ye spring of ye year, about ye time of their

Election Court, Oldam came againe amongst them; and

though it was a part of his censure for his former

mutinye and miscariage, not to returne without leave

first obtained, yet in his dareing spirite, he presumed

230                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

without any leave at all, being also set on & hardened

by ye ill counsell of others.  And not only so, but

suffered his unruly passion to rune beyond ye limits

of all reason and modestie; in so much that some

strangers which came with him were ashamed of his

outrage, and rebuked him; but all reprofes were but

as oyle to ye fire, and made ye flame of his coller

greater.  He caled them all to nought, in this his

mad furie, and a hundred rebells and traytors, and

I know not what.  But in conclusion they comited

him till he was tamer, and then apointed a gard of

musketers wch he was to pass throw, and ever one

was ordered to give him a thump on ye brich, with

ye but end of his musket, and then was conveied to

ye water side, wher a boat was ready to cary him

away.  Then they bid him goe & mende his maners.

    Whilst this was a doing, Mr. William Peirce and

Mr. Winslow came up from ye water side, being come

from England; but they were so busie with Oldam,

as they never saw them till they came thus upon

them.  They bid them not spare either him or Liford,

for they had played ye vilans with them.  But that I

may hear make an end with him, I shall hear once

for all relate what befell concerning him in ye future,

& yt breefly.  After ye removall of his familie from

hence, he fell into some straits, (as some others did,)

and aboute a year or more afterwards, towards win-

ter, he intended a vioage for Virginia; but it so

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                231

pleased God that ye barke that caried him, and many

other passengers, was in that danger, as they dis-

paired of life; so as many of them, as they fell to

prayer,  so also did they begine to examine their con-

sciences [131] and confess such sins as did most

burthen them.  And Mr. Ouldame did make a free

and large confession of ye wrongs and hurt he had

done to ye people and church here, in many pertic-

ulers, that as he had sought their mine, so God had

now mette with him and might destroy him; yea, he

feared they all fared ye worce for his sake; he prayed

God to forgive him, and made vowes that, if ye Lord

spard his life, he would become otherwise, and ye

like.  This I had from some of good credite, yet

living in ye Bay, and were them selves partners in

the same dangers on ye shoulds of Cap-Codd, and

heard it from his owne mouth.  It pleased God to

spare their lives, though they lost their viage; and

in time after wards, Ouldam caried him selfe fairly

towards them, and acknowledged ye hand of God to

be with them, and seemed to have an honourable

respecte of them; and so farr made his peace with

them, as he in after time had libertie to goe and

come, and converse with them, at his pleasure.  He

went after this to Virginia, and had ther a great sick-

nes but recovered and came back againe to his familie

in ye Bay, and ther lived till some store of people

came over.  At lenght going a trading in a smale ves-

232                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

sell among ye Indians, and being weakly mand, upon

some quarell they knockt him on ye head with a

hatched, so as he fell downe dead, & never spake

word more.  2. litle boys that were his kinsmen were

saved, but had some hurte, and ye vessell was strangly

recovered from ye Indeans by another that belonged

to ye Bay of Massachusets; and this his death was

one ground of the Pequente warr which followed.

     I am now come to Mr. Lyford.  His time being

now expired, his censure was to take place.  He was

so farre from answering their hopes by amendmente

in ye time, as he had dubled his evill, as is before

noted.  But first behold ye hand of God conceiring

him, wherin that of ye Psalmist is verified. Psa:

7. 15. He hath made a pitte, & digged it, and is

fallen into the pitte he made.  He thought to bring

shame and disgrace upon them, but in stead therof

opens his owne to all ye world.  For when he was

delte with all aboute his second letter, his wife was

so affected with his doings, as she could no longer

conceaill her greefe and sorrow of minde, but opens

ye same to one of their deacons & some other of her

freinds, & after uttered ye same to Mr. Peirce upon

his arrivall.  Which was to this purpose, that she

feared some great judgment of God would fall upon

them, and upon her, for her husbands cause; now

that they were to remove, she feared to fall into ye

Indeans hands, and to be defiled by them, as he had

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                233

defiled other women; or some shuch like [132] judg-

mente, as God had threatened David, 2. Sam. 12.11.

I will raise up evill against ye, and will take thy

wives & give them, &c.  And upon it showed how

he had wronged her, as first he had a bastard by

another before they were maried, & she having some

inkling of some ill cariage that way, when he was

a suitor to her, she tould him what she heard,

& deneyd him; but she not certainly knowing ye

thing, other wise then by some darke & secrete mut-

erings, he not only stifly denied it, but to satisfie

her tooke a solemne oath ther was no shuch matter.

Upon which she gave consente, and maried with him;

but afterwards it was found true, and ye bastard

brought home to them.  She then charged him with

his oath, but he prayed pardon, and said he should

els not have had her.  And yet afterwards she could

keep no maids but he would be medling with them,

and some time she hath taken him in ye manner, as

they lay at their beds feete, with shuch other cir-

cumstances as I am ashamed to relate.  The woman

being a grave matron, & of good cariage all ye while

she was hear, and spoake these things out of ye sor-

row of her harte, sparingly, and yet wth some further

intimations.  And that which did most seeme to

affecte her (as they conceived) was, to see his for-

mer cariage in his repentance, not only hear with

ye church, but formerly about these things; sheding

234                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

tears, and using great & sade expressions, and yet

eftsone fall into the like things.

     Another thing of ye same nature did strangly con-

curr herewith.  When Mr. Winslow & Mr. Peirce were

come over, Mr. Winslow informed them that they had

had ye like bickering with Lyfords freinds in England,

as they had with him selfe and his freinds hear,

aboute his letters & accusations in them.  And many

meetings and much clamour was made by his freinds

theraboute, crying out, a minister, a man so godly, to

be so esteemed & taxed they held a great skandale,

and threated to prosecute law against them for it. 

But things being referred to a further meeting of most

of ye adventurers, to heare ye case and decide ye mat-

ters, they agreed to chose 2. eminente men for mod-

erators in the bussines.  Lyfords faction chose Mr.

White, a counselor at law, the other parte chose Reved.

Mr. Hooker, ye minister, and many freinds on both

sids were brought in, so as ther was a great assemblie.

In ye mean time, God in his providence had detected

Lyford's evill cariage in Ireland to some freinds amongst

ye company, who made it knowne to Mr. Winslow, and

directed him to 2. godly and grave witnesses, who would

testifie ye same (if caled therunto) upon their oath.

The thing was this; he being gott into Ireland, had

wound him selfe into ye esteeme of sundry godly &

zelous profess ours in those parts, who, having been

burthened with ye ceremonies in England, found ther

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                235

some more liberty to their consciences; amongst whom

were these 2. men, which gave [133] this evidence.

Amongst ye rest of his hearers, ther was a godly yonge

man that intended to marie, and cast his affection on

a maide which lived their aboute; but desiring to chose

in ye Lord, and preferred ye fear of God before all

other things, before he suffered his affection to rune too

farr, he resolved to take Mr. Lyfords advise and judg-

mente of this maide, (being ye minister of ye place,)

and so broak ye matter unto him; & he promised

faithfully to informe him, but would first take better

knowledg of her, and have private conferance with her;

and so had sundry times; and in conclusion comended

her highly to ye yong man as a very fitte wife for him.

So they were maried togeather; but some time after

mariage the woman was much troubled in mind, and

afflicted in conscience, and did nothing but weepe and

mourne, and long it was before her husband could get

of her what was ye cause.  But at length she dis-

covered ye thing, and prayed him to forgive her, for

Lyford had overcome her, and defiled her body before

marriage, after he had comended him unto her for

a husband, and she resolved to have him, when he

came to her in that private way.  The circumstances

I forbear, for they would offend chast ears to hear

them related, (for though he satisfied his lust on her,

yet he indeaoured to hinder conception.)  These things

being thus discovered, ye womas husband tooke some

236                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

godly freinds with him, to deale with Liford for this

evill.  At length he confest it, with a great deale of

seeming sorrow & repentance, but was forct to leave

Irland upon it, partly for shame, and partly for fear

of further punishmente, for ye godly withdrew them

selves from him upon it; and so coming into England

unhapily he was light upon & sente hither.

     But in this great assembly, and before ye moderators,

in handling ye former matters aboute ye letters, upon

provocation, in some heate of replie to some of Lyfords

defenders, Mr. Winslow let fall these words, That he

had delte knavishly; upon which on of his freinds

tooke hold, & caled for witneses, that he cald a minister

of ye gospell knave, and would prosecute law upon it,

which made a great tumulte, upon which (to be shorte)

this matter broke out, and the witnes were prodused,

whose persons were so grave, and evidence so plaine,

and ye facte so foule, yet delivered in such modest

& chast terms, and with such circumstances, as strucke

all his freinds mute, and made them all ashamed; inso-

much as ye moderators with great gravitie declared

that ye former matters gave them cause enough to

refuse him & to deal with him as they had done, but

these made him unmeete for ever to bear ministrie any

more, what repentance soever he should pretend; with

much more to like effecte, and so wisht his freinds to

rest quiete.  Thus was this matter ended.

     From hence Lyford wente to Natasco, in ye Bay of

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                237

ye Massachusets, with some other of his freinds with

him, wher Oldom allso lived.  From thence he removed

to Namkeke, since called Salem; but after ther came

some people over, wheather for hope of greater profite,

or what ends els I know not, he left his freinds that

followed him, and went from thence to Virginia, wher

he shortly after dyed, and so I leave him to ye Lord. 

His wife afterwards returned againe to this cuntry, and

thus much of this matter.

     [134] This storme being thus blowne over, yet sun-

drie sad effects followed ye same; for the Company

of Adventurers broake in peeces here upon, and ye

greatest parte wholy deserted ye colony in regarde of

any further supply, or care of their subsistance.  And

not only so, but some of Lyfords & Oldoms freinds,

and their adherents, set out a shipe on fishing, on

their owne accounte, and getting ye starte of ye ships

that came to the plantation, they tooke away their

stage, & other necessary provisions that they had made

for fishing at Cap-Anne ye year before, at their great

charge, and would not restore ye same, excepte they

would fight for it.  But ye Govr sent some of ye planters

to help ye fisher men to build a new one, and so let

them keepe it.  This shipe also brought them some

small supply, of little value; but they made so pore

a bussines of their fishing, (neither could these men

make them any returne for ye supply sente,) so as, after

this year, they never looked more after them.

238                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     Also by this ship, they, some of them, sent (in ye

name of ye rest) certaine reasons of their breaking of

from ye plantation, and some tenders, upon certaine con-

ditions, of reuniting againe.  The which because they

are longe & tedious, and most of them aboute the former

things already touched, I shall omite them; only give-

ing an instance in one, or tow.  1. reason, they charged

them for dissembling with his majestie in their petition,

and with ye adventurers about ye French discipline, &c.

2ly, for receiving* a man ! into their church, that in

his conffession renownced all, universaIl, nationall, and

diocessan churches, &c., by which (say they) it appears,

that though they deney the name of Browists, yet they

practiss ye same, &c.  And therfore they should sine

against God in building up such a people.

     Then they adde:  Our dislikes thus laid downe, that

we may goe on in trade wth better contente & credite,

our desires are as followeth.  First, that as we are

partners in trade, so we may be in Govrt ther, as the

patente doth give us power, &c.

     2.  That the French discipline may be practised in the

plantation, as well in the circumstances theirof, as in ye

substance; wherby ye scandallous name of ye Brownists,

and other church differences, may be taken away.

      3.  Lastly, that Mr. Robinson and his company may

not goe over to our plantation, unless he and they

*Receive in the manuscript.

! This was Lyford himselfe.

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                239

will reconcile themselves to our church by a recantation

under their hands, &c.

      Their answer in part to these things was then as



     Wheras you taxe us for dissembling with his majestie &

ye adventurers aboute ye French discipline, you doe us wrong,

for we both hold & practice ye discipline of ye French & other

reformed churches, (as they have published ye same in ye

Harmony of Confessions,) according to our means, in effecte

& substance.  But wheras you would tye us to the French

discipline in every circumstance, you derogate from ye libertie

we have in Christ Jesus.  The Apostle Paule would have

none to follow him in any thing but wherin he follows Christ,

much less ought any Christian or church in ye world to doe

it.  The French may erre, we may erre, and other churches

may erre, and doubtless doe in many circumstances.  That

honour therfore belongs only to ye infallible word of God,

and pure Testamente of Christ, to be propounded and fol-

lowed as ye only rule and pattern for direction herin to all

churches & Christians.  And it is too great arrogancie for

any man, or church [135] to thinke yt he or they have so

sounded ye word of God to ye bottome, as precislie to sett

downe ye churches discipline, without error in substance or

circumstance, as yt no other without blame may digress or

differ in any thing from ye same.  And it is not difficulte to

shew, yt the reformed churches differ in many circumstances :

amongest them selves.

     The rest I omitte, for brevities sake, and so leave to

prosecute these men or their doings any further, but

shall returne to ye rest of their freinds of ye company,

wch stuck to them.  And I shall first inserte some part

240                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

of their letters as followeth; for I thinke it best to ren-

der their minds in ther owne words.

To our loving freinds, &c.

     Though the thing we feared be come upon us, and ye evill

we strove against have overtaken us, yet we cannot forgett

you, nor our freindship and fellowship which togeather we

have had some years; wherin though our expressions have

been small, yet our harty affections towards you (unknown

by face) have been no less then to our nearest freinds, yea,

to our owne selves.  And though this your freind Mr. Wins-

low can tell you ye state of things hear, yet least we should

seeme to neglecte you, to whom, by a wonderfull providence

of God, we are so nearly united, we have thought good once

more to write unto you, to let you know what is here befallen,

and ye resons of it; as also our purposes & desirs toward you

for hereafter.

     The former course for the generalitie here is wholy dis-

solved from what it was; and wheras you & we were for-

merly sharers and partners, in all viages & deallings, this way

is now no more, but you and we are left to bethinke our

sellves what course to take in ye future, that your lives &

our monies be not lost.

     The reasons and causes of this allteration have been these.

First and mainly, ye many losses and crosses at sea, and

abuses of sea-men, wch have caused us to rune into so much

charge, debts, & ingagements, as our estats & means were

not able to goe on without impoverishing our selves, except

our estats had been greater, and our associats cloven beter

unto us.  2ly, as here hath been a faction and siding amongst

us now more then 2. years, so now there is an uter breach

and sequestration amongst us, and in too parts of us a full

dissertion and forsaking of you, without any intente or pur-

pose of medling more with you. And though we are per-

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                241

swaded the maine cause of this their doing is wante of

money, (for neede wherof men use to make many excuses,)

yet other things are pretended, as that you are Brownists,

&c.  Now what use you or we ought to make of these things,

it remaineth to be considered, for we know ye hand of God to

be in all these things, and no doubt he would admonish some

thing therby, and to looke what is amise.  And allthough it

be now too late for us or you to prevent & stay these things,

yet it is* not to late to exercise patience, wisdom, and con-

science in bearing them, and in caring our selves in & under

them for ye time to come.

     [136] And as we our selves stand ready to imbrace all

occasions that may tend to ye furthrance of so hopefull a

work, rather admiring of what is, then grudging for what is

not; so it must rest in you to make all good againe.  And

if in nothing else you can be approved, yet let your honestie

& conscience be still approved, & lose not one jote of your

innocencie, amids your crosses & afflictions.  And surly if

you upon this allteration behave your selves wisly, and goe

on fairly, as men whose hope is not in this life, you shall

need no other weapon to wound your adversaries; for when

your righteousnes is revealled as ye light, they shall cover

their faces with shame, that causlesly have sought your over-


     Now we thinke it but reason, that all such things as ther

apertaine to the generall, be kept & preserved togeather, and

rather increased dayly, then any way be dispersed or imbeseled

away for any private ends or intents whatsoever.  And after

your necessities are served, you gather togeather such comodi-

ties as ye cuntrie yeelds, & send them over to pay debts &

clear ingagements hear, which are not less then 1400li. And

we hope you will doe your best to free our ingagements, &c.

Let us all indeavor to keep a faire & honest course, and see

*Is it not in the MS.

242                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

what time will bring forth, and how God in his providence

will worke for us.  We still are perswaded you are ye people

that must make a plantation in those remoate places when all

others faile and returne.  And your experience of Gods provi-

dence and preservation of you is such as we hope your harts

will not faile you, though your freinds should forsake you

(which we our selves shall not doe whilst we live, so long

as your honestie so well appereth).  Yet surly help would

arise from some other place whilst you waite on God, with

uprightnes, though we should leave you allso.

     And lastly be you all intreated to walke circumspectly, and

carry your selves so uprightly in all your ways, as yt no man

may make just exceptions against you.  And more espetially

that ye favour and countenance of God may be so toward you,

as yt you may find abundante joye & peace even amids tribu-

lations, that you may say with David, Though my father &

mother should forsake me, yet ye Lord would take me up.

     We have sent you bear some catle, cloath, hose, shoes,

leather, &c., but in another nature then formerly, as it stood

us in hand to doe; we have comitted them to ye charge

& custody of Mr. Allerton and Mr. Winslow, as our factours,

at whose discretion they are to be sould, and comodities to

be taken for them, as is fitting.  And by how much ye more

they will be chargable unto you, the better* they had need to

be husbanded, &c.  Goe on, good freinds, comfortably, pluck

up your spirits, and quitte your selves like men in all your

difficulties, that notwithstanding all displeasure and threats of

men, yet ye work may goe on you are aboute, and not be

neglected.  Which is so much for ye glorie of God, and the

furthrance of our countrie-men, as that a man may with

more comforte [137] spend his life in it, then live ye life

of Mathusala, in wasting ye plentie of a tilled land, or eating

ye fruite of a growne tree.  Thus with harry salutations to

*Bet- in MS.

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                243

you all, and harty prayers for you all, we lovingly take our

leaves, this 18. of Des: 1624.

Your assured freinds to our powers,

J. S. W. C. T. F. R. H. &c.

    By this leter it appears in what state ye affairs of ye

plantation stood at this time.  These goods they bought,

but they were at deare rates, for they put 40. in ye hun-

dred upon them, for profite and adventure, outward

bound; and because of ye vnture of ye paiment home-

ward, they would have 30.* in ye 100. more, which was

in all 70. pr. cent; a thing thought unreasonable by some,

and too great an oppression upon ye poore people, as their

case stood.  The catle were ye best goods, for ye other

being ventured ware, were neither at ye best (some of

them) nor at ye best prises.  Sundrie of their freinds

disliked these high rates, but coming from many hands,

they could not help it.

     They sent over also 2. ships on fishing on their owne

acounte; the one was ye pinass that was cast away ye last

year hear in ye cuntrie, and recovered by ye planters, (as

was before related,) who, after she came home, was at-

tached by one of ye company for his perticuler debte, and

now sent againe on this accounte.  The other was a great

ship, who was well fitted with an experienced mr. & com-

pany of fisher-men, to make a viage, & to goe to Bilbo

or Sabastians with her fish; the lesser, her order was

            *If I mistake not, it was not much less. [30li in the manuscript.]

244                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

to load with cor-fish, and to bring the beaver home for

England, yt should be received for ye goods sould to ye

plantation.  This bigger ship made a great viage of good

drie fish, the which, if they had gone to a market wth,

would have yeelded them (as such fish was sould yt

season) 1800li. which would have enriched them.  But

because ther was a bruite of warr with France, ye mr.

neglected (through timerousnes) his order, and put first

into Plimoth, & after into Portsmouth, and so lost their

opportunitie, and came by the loss.  The lesser ship had

as ill success, though she was as hopfull as ye other for

ye marchants profite; for they had fild her with goodly

cor-fish taken upon ye banke, as full as she could swime;

and besids she had some 800li. weaight of beaver, besids

other furrs to a good value from ye plantation.  The mr.

seeing so much goods come, put it abord ye biger ship,

for more saftie; but Mr. Winslow (their factor in this

busines) was bound in a bond of 500li. to send it to Lon-

don in ye smale ship; ther was some contending between

ye mr. & him aboute it.  But he tould ye mr. he would

follow his order aboute it; if he would take it out after-

ward, it should be at his perill.  So it went in ye smale

ship, and he sent bills of lading in both.  The mr. was

so carfull being both so well laden, as they went joyfully

home togeather, for he towed ye leser ship at his sterne

all ye way over bound, and they had such fayr weather

as he never cast her of till they were shott deep in to

ye English Chanell, almost within ye sight of Plimoth;

1625.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                245

and yet ther she was unhaply taken by a Turks man

of warr, and carried into Saly, wher ye mr. and men

were made slaves, and many of ye beaver skins were

sould for 4d. a peece.  [138] T hus was all their hops

dasht, and the joyfull news they ment to cary home

turned to heavie tidings.  Some thought this a hand of

God for their too great exaction of ye poore plantation,

but Gods judgments are unseerchabIe, neither dare I be

bould therwith; but however it shows us ye uncertainty

of all humane things, and what litle cause ther is of

joying in them or trusting to them.

      In ye bigger of these ships was sent over Captine Stan-

dish from ye plantation, wth leters & instructions, both

to their freinds of ye company which still clave to them,

and also to ye Honourable Counsell of New-England.

To ye company to desire yt seeing that they ment only

to let them have goods upon sale, that they might have

them upon easier termes, for they should never be able

to bear such high interest, or to allow so much per cent;

also that what they would doe in yt way that it might

be disburst in money, or such goods as were fitte and

needful1 for them, & bought at best hand; and to

aquainte them with ye contents of his leters to ye Counsell

above said, which was to this purpose, to desire their

favour & help; that such of ye adventurers as had thus

forsaken & deserted them, might be brought to some

order, and not to keepe them bound, and them selves be

free.  But that they might either stand to ther former

246                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

covenants, or ells come to some faire end, by dividente,

or composition.  But he came in a very bad time, for

ye Stat was full of trouble, and ye plague very hote in

London, so as no bussines could be done; yet he spake

with some of ye Honourd Counsell, who promised all

helpfullnes to ye plantation which lay in them.  And

sundrie of their freinds ye adventurers were so weakened

with their losses ye last year, by ye losse of ye ship

taken by the Turks, and ye loss of their fish, wch by rea-

son of ye warrs they were forcte to land at Portsmouth,

and so came to litle; so as, though their wills were

good, yet theyr power was litle.  And ther dyed such

multituds weekly of ye plague, as all trade was dead,

and litle money stirring.  Yet with much adooe he

tooke up 150li. (& spent a good deal of it in expences)

at 50. per cent. which he bestowed in trading goods

& such other most needfull comodities as he knew

requiset for their use; and so returned passenger in

a fhishing ship, haveing prepared a good way for ye

compossition that was afterward made.

     In ye mean time it pleased ye Lord to give ye plan-

tation peace and health and contented minds, and so to

blese ther labours, as they had corne sufficient, (and

some to spare to others,) with other foode; neither ever

had they any supply of foode but what they first brought

with them.  After harvest this year, they sende out

a boats load of corne 40. or 50. leagues to ye east-

ward, up a river called Kenibeck; it being one of those

1626.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                247

2. shalops which their carpenter had built them ye year

before; for bigger vessell had they none.  They had

laid a litle deck over her midships to keepe ye corne

drie, but ye men were faine to stand it out all weathers

without shelter; and yt time [139] of ye year begins to

growe tempestious.  But God preserved them, and gave

them good success, for they brought home 700li, of beaver,

besids some other furrs, having litle or nothing els but

this corne, which them selves had raised out of ye earth.

This viage was made by Mr. Winslow & some of ye old

standards,* for seamen they had none.

Anno Dom: 1626.

     ABOUT ye begining of Aprill they heard of Captain

Standish his arrivall, and sent a boat to fetch him home,

and ye things he had brought.  Welcome he was, but

ye news he broughte was sadd in many regards; not

only in regarde of the former losses, before related,

which their freinds had suffered, by which some in a

maner were undon, others much disabled from doing

any further help, and some dead of ye plague, but also

yt Mr. Robinson, their pastor, was dead, which struck

them with much sorrow & sadnes, as they had cause.

His and their adversaries had been long & continually

plotting how they might hinder his coming hither, but

ye Lord had appointed him a better place; concerning

*First written as in the text, then altered to standerss,

248                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

whose death & the maner therof, it will appere by

these few lines write to ye Govr. & Mr. Brewster.

     Loving & kind frinds, &c.  I know not whether this will

ever come to your hands, or miscarie, as other my letters have

done; yet in regard of ye Lords dealing with us hear, I have

had a great desire to write unto you, knowing your desire to

bear a parte with us, both in our joyes, & sorrows, as we doe

wth you.  These are therfore to give you to understand, that

it hath pleased the Lord to take out of this vaell of tears,

your and our loving & faithfull pastor, and my dear & Reved

brother, Mr. John Robinson, who was sick some 8. days.  He

begane to be sick on Saturday in ye morning, yet ye next day

(being the Lords day) he taught us twise.  And so ye weeke

after grew weaker, every day more then other; yet he felt

no paine but weaknes all ye time of his sicknes.  The phisick

he tooke wrought kindly in mans judgmente, but he grew

weaker every day, feeling litle or no paine, aud sensible to

ye very last.  He fell sicke ye 22. of Feb: and departed this

life ye 1. of March.  He had a continuall inwarde ague, but

free from infection, so yt all his freinds came freely to him.

And if either prayers, tears, or means, would have saved his

life, he had not gone hence.  But he having faithfully finished

his course, and performed his worke which ye Lord had

appointed him here to doe, he now resteth with ye Lord

in eternall hapines.  We wanting him & all Church Govrs,

yet we still (by ye mercie of God) continue & hould close

togeather, in peace and quietnes; and so hope we shall doe,

though we be very weake.  Wishing (if such were ye will of

God) that you & we were againe united togeather in one,

either ther or here; but seeing it is ye will of ye Lord thus

to dispose of things, we must labour wth patience to rest

contented, till it please ye Lord otherwise to dispose.  For

[140] news, is here not much; only as in England we have

1626.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                249

lost our old king James, who departed this life aboute a

month agoe, so here they have lost ye old prince, Grave

Mourise; who both departed this life since my brother Robin-

son.  And as in England we have a new-king Charls, of

whom ther is great hope, so hear they have made prince

Hendrick Generall in his brothers place, &c.  Thus with my

love remembred, I take leave & rest,

Your assured loving freind,


Leyden, Aprill 28.

Ano: 1625.

      Thus these too great princes, and their pastor, left this

world near aboute one time.  Death maks no difference.

He further brought them notice of ye death of their

anciente freind, Mr. Cush-man, whom ye Lord tooke

away allso this year, & aboute this time, who was as their

right hand with their freinds ye adventurers, and for

diverce years had done & agitated all their bussines with

them to ther great advantage.  He had write to ye Gover

but some few months before, of ye sore sicknes of Mr.

James Sherley, who was a cheefe freind to ye plantation,

and lay at ye pointe of death, declaring his love & help-

fullnes, in all things; and much bemoned the loss they

should have of him, if God should now take him away,

as being ye stay & life of ye whole bussines.  As allso his

owne purposs this year to come over, and spend his days

with them.  But he that thus write of anothers sicknes,

knew not yt his owne death was so near.  It shows allso

that a mas ways are not in his owne power, but in his

250                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

hands who hath ye issues of life and death.  Man may

purpose, but God doth dispose.

     Their other freinds from Leyden writ many leters to

them full of sad laments for ther heavie loss; and though

their wills were good to come to them, yet they saw no

probabilitie of means, how it might be effected, but con-

cluded (as it were) that all their hopes were cutt of; and

many, being aged, begane to drop away by death.

     All which things (before related) being well weighed

and laied togither, it could not but strick them with great

perplexitie; and to looke humanly on ye state of things

as they presented them selves at this time, it is a marvell

it did not wholy discourage them, and sinck them.  But

they gathered up their spirits, and ye Lord so helped

them, whose worke they had in hand, as now when they

were at lowest* they begane to rise againe, and being

striped (in a maner) of all humane helps and hops, he

brought things aboute other wise, in his devine provi-

dence, as they were not only upheld & sustained, but

their proceedings both honoured and imitated by others;

as by ye sequell will more appeare, if ye Lord spare me

life & time to declare ye same.

     Haveing now no fishing busines, or other things to

intend, but only their trading & planting, they sett them

selves to follow the same with ye best industrie they

could.  The planters finding their corne, what they could

spare from ther necessities, to be a comoditie, (for they


1626.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                251

sould it at 6s. a bushell,) used great dilligence in planting

ye same.  And ye Gover and such as were designed to

manage the trade, (for it was retained for ye generall

good, [141] and none were to trade in perticuler,) they

followed it to the best advantage they could; and want-

ing trading goods, they understoode that a plantation

which was at Monhigen, & belonged to some marchants

of Plimoth was to breake up, and diverse usefull goods

was ther to be sould; the Gover and Mr. Winslow tooke

a boat and some hands and went thither.  But Mr. David

Thomson, who lived at Pascataway, understanding their

purpose, tooke oppertunitie to goe with them, which was

some hinderance to them both; for they, perceiveing their

joynte desires to buy, held their goods at higher rates;

and not only so, but would not sell a parcell of their

trading goods, excepte they sould all.  So, lest they

should further prejudice one an other, they agreed to buy

all, & devid them equally between them.  They bought

allso a parcell of goats, which they distributed at home

as they saw neede & occasion, and tooke corne for them

of ye people, which gave them good content.  Their

moyety of ye goods came to above 400li. starling.  Ther

was allso that spring a French ship cast away at Saca-

fahock, in wch were many Biscaie ruggs & other comodi-

ties, which were falen into these mens hands, & some

other fisher men at Damerins-cove, which were allso ,

bought in partnership, and made their parte arise to

above 500li.  This they made shift to pay for, for ye most

252                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

part, with ye beaver & comodities they had gott ye winter

before, & what they had gathered up yt somer.  Mr.

Thomson having some thing overcharged him selfe, de-

sired they would take some of his, but they refused

except he would let them have his French goods only;

and ye marchant (who was one of Bristol) would take

their bill for to be paid ye next year.  They were both

willing, so they became ingaged for them & tooke them.

By which means they became very well furnished for

trade; and tooke of therby some other ingagments wch

lay upon them, as the money taken up by Captaine

Standish, and ye remains of former debts.  With these

goods, and their corne after harvest, they gott good store

of trade, so as they were enabled to pay their ingage-

ments against ye time, & to get some cloathing for ye

people, and had some comodities before hand.  But now

they begane to be envied, and others wente and fild ye

Indeans with corne, and beat downe ye prise, giveing

them twise as much as they had done, and under traded

them in other comodities allso.

     This year they sent Mr. Allerton into England, and

gave him order to make a composition with ye adventur-

ers, upon as good termes as he could (unto which some

way had ben made ye year before by Captaine Standish);

but yet injoyned him not to conclud absolutly till they

knew ye termes, and had well considered of them; but

to drive it to as good an issew as he could, and referr

ye conclusion to them.  Also they gave him a comission

1626.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                253

under their hands & seals to take up some money, pro-

vided it exeeded not such a sume specified, for which

they engaged them selves, and gave him order how to

layout ye same for ye use of ye plantation.

    And finding they rane a great hazard to goe so long

viages in a smale open boat, espetialy ye winter season,

they begane to thinke how they might gett a small

pinass; as for ye reason afforesaid, so also because

others had raised ye prise with ye lndeans above ye

halfe of what they had formerly given, so as in such

a boat they could not [143*] carry a quantity suffi-

cient to answer their ends.  They had no ship-carpen-

ter amongst them, neither knew how to get one at

presente; but they having an ingenious man that was

a house carpenter, who also had wrought with ye ship

carpenter (that was dead) when he built their boats,

at their request he put forth him selfe to make a triall

that way of his skill; and tooke one of ye bigest of

ther shalops and sawed her in ye midle, and so lenth-

ened her some 5. or 6. foote, and strengthened her

with timbers, and so builte her up, and laid a deck

on her; and so made her a conveniente and wholsome

vessell, very fitt & comfortable for their use, which

did them servise 7. years after; and they gott her

finished, and fitted with sayles & anchors, ye insuing

year.  And thus passed ye affairs of this year.

  *Here occurs another error in the paging of the original; 142 is omitted.

254                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

Anno Dom: 1627.

     AT ye usuall season of ye coming of ships Mr. Aller-

ton returned, and brought some usfull goods with him,

according to ye order given him.  For upon his com-

mission he tooke up 200li. which he now gott at 30.

per cent.  The which goods they gott safly home,

and well conditioned, which was much to the comfort

& contente of ye plantation.  He declared unto them,

allso, how, with much adoe and no small trouble, he

had made a composition with ye adventurers, by the

help of sundrie of their faithfull freinds ther, who had

allso tooke much pains ther about.  The agreement or

bargen he had brought a draught of, with a list of ther

names ther too annexed, drawne by the best counsell

of law they could get, to make it firme.  The heads

wherof I shall here inserte.

     To all Christian people, greeting, &c.  Wheras at a meeting

ye 26. of October last past, diverse & sundrie persons, whose

names to ye one part of these presents are subscribed in a

schedule hereunto annexed, Adventurers to New-Plimoth in

New-England in America, were contented and agreed, in con-

sideration of the sume of one thousand and eight hundred

pounds sterling to be paid, (in maner and forme folling,) to

sell, and make sale of all & every ye stocks, shares, lands,

marchandise, and chatles, what soever, to ye said adventurers,

and other ther fellow adventurers to New Plimoth aforesaid,

any way accruing, or belonging to ye generalitie of ye said

adventurers aforesaid; as well by reason of any sume or sumes

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION                 255

of money, or marchandise, at any time heretofore adventured

or disbursed by them, or other wise howsoever; for ye better

expression and setting forth of which said agreemente, the

parties to these presents subscribing, doe for [144] them selves

severally, and as much as in them is, grant, bargan, alien, sell,

and transfere all & every ye said shares, goods, lands, mar-

chandice, and chatles to them belonging as aforesaid, unto

Isaack Alerton, one of ye planters resident at Plimoth affore-

said, assigned, and sent over as agente for ye rest of ye

planters ther, and to such other planters at Plimoth afforesaid

as ye said Isack, his heirs, or assignes, at his or ther arrivall,

shall by writing or otherwise thinke fitte to joyne or partake

in ye premisses, their heirs, & assignes, in as large, ample,

and beneficiall maner and forme, to all intents and purposes,

as ye said subscribing adventurers here could or may doe, or

performe.  All which stocks, shares, lands, &c. to the said

adven:  in severallitie alloted, apportioned, or any way belong-

ing, the said adven: doe warrant & defend unto the said

Isaack Allerton, his heirs and assignes, against them, their

heirs and assignes, by these presents.  And therfore ye said

Isaack Allerton doth, for him, his heirs & assigns, covenant,

promise, & grant too & with ye adven:  whose names are here

unto subscribed, ther heirs, &c. well & truly to pay, or cause

to be payed, unto ye said adven: or 5. of them which were, at

yt meeting afforsaid, nominated & deputed, viz. John Pocock,

John Beachamp, Robart Keane, Edward Base, and James

Sherley, marchants, their heirs, &c. too and for ye use of ye

generallitie of them, the sume of 1800li. of lawfull money

of England, at ye place appoynted for ye receipts of money

on the west side of ye Royall Exchaing in London, by 200li.

yearly, and every year, on ye feast of St. Migchell, the first

paiment to be made Ano: 1628. &c.  Allso ye said Isaack is

to indeavor to procure & obtaine from ye planters of N. P.

aforesaid, securitie, by severall obligations, or writings oblig-

256                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

atory, to make paiment of ye said sume of 1800li. in forme

afforsaid, according to ye true meaning of these presents.  In

testimonie wherof to this part of these presents remaining with

ye said Isaack Allerton, ye said subscribing adven: have sett

to their names,* &c.  And to ye other part remaining with

ye said adven: the said Isaack Allerton hath subscribed his

name, ye 15. Novbr. Ano: 1626. in ye 2. year of his Majesties


*Below are the names of the adventurers subscribed to this paper, taken

from Bradford's Letter-Book, 1 Mass. Hist. ColI., III. 48; being forty-two in

number.  The names of six of these persons are found subsequently among

the members of the Massachusetts Company, viz. John White, John Pocock,

Thomas Goffe, Samuel Sharpe, John Revell, and Thomas Andrews. Mr.

Haven, who edited the Records of the Massachusetts Company, is of opinion

that the first person on the list is the celebrated clergyman of Dorchester, the

reputed anthor of the Planter's Plea.  Emnu. Alltham is probably the same

person named in the Council Records, under date January 21, 1622-3 : "Emanuel

Altum to command the Pinnace built for Mr. Peirce's Plantation." Smith

speaks of "Captaine Altom" as commanding this vessell, but Morton says the

name of the master of the Little James was Mr. Bridges, who it appears was

drowned at Damariscove, in March, 1624.  See ColI. of the Amer. Antiq. Soc.,

III. 26, 62, Preface; Felt's MS. Memoranda from the Council Records; Smith's

Generall Historie, p. 239; Morton's Memorial, p. 48.

John White,                  Samuel Sharpe,            Thomas Hudson,

John Pocock,               Robert Holland,            Thomas Andrews,

Robert Kean,               James Sherley, Thomas Ward,

Edward Bass,               Thomas Mott,               Fria. Newbald,

William Hobson,           Thomas Fletcher,          Thomas Heath,

William Penington,        Timothy Hatherly,         Joseph Tilden,

William Quarles,           Thomas Brewer,           William Perrin,

Daniel Poynton,            John Thorned, Eliza Knight,

Richard Andrews,         Myles Knowles,           Thomas Coventry,

Newman Rookes,         William Collier,             Robert Allden,

Henry Browning,          John Revell,                  Lawrence Anthony,

Richard Wright,            Peter Gudburn,             John Knight,

John Ling,                     Emnu. Alltham,             Matthew Thornhill,

Thomas Goffe, John Beanchamp,         Thomas Millsop.

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                257

     This agreemente was very well liked of, & approved

by all ye plantation, and consented unto; though they

knew not well how to raise ye payment, and discharge

their other ingagements, and supply the yearly wants

of ye plantation, seeing they were forced for their

necessities to take up money or goods at so high in-

trests.  Yet they undertooke it, and 7. or 8. of ye

cheefe of ye place became joyntly bound for ye pai-

mente of this 1800li. (in ye behalfe of ye rest) at ye

severall days.  In which they rane a great adventure,

as their present state stood, having many other heavie

burthens allready upon them, and all things in an un-

certaine condition amongst them.  So ye next returne

it was absolutly confirmed on both sids, and ye bargen

fairly ingrossed in partchmente and in many things put

into better forme, by ye advice of ye learnedest counsell

they could gett; and least any forfeiture should fall on

ye whole for none paimente at any of ye days, it rane

thus:  to forfite 30s. a weeke if they missed ye time;

and was concluded under their hands & seals, as may

be seen at large by ye deed it selfe. I

     [145] Now though they had some unto warde per-

sons mixed amongst them from the first, which came

out of England, and more afterwards by some of ye

adventurers, as freindship or other affections led them,

-- though sundrie were gone, some for Virginia, and

some to other places, -- yet diverse were still mingled

amongst them, about whom ye Gover & counsell with

258                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

other of their cheefe freinds had serious consideration,

how to setle things in regard of this new bargen or

purchas made, in respecte of ye distribution of things

both for ye presente and future.  For ye present, ex-

cepte peace and union were preserved, they should be

able to doe nothing, but indanger to over throw all,

now that other tyes & bonds were taken away.  Ther-

fore they resolved, for sundrie reasons, to take in all

amongst them, that were either heads of families, or

single yonge men, that were of abillity, and free, (and

able to governe them selvs with meete descretion, and

their affairs, so as to be helpfull in ye comone-welth,)

into this partnership or purchass.  First, yey consid-

ered that they had need of men & strength both for

defence and carrying on of bussinesses.  2ly, most of

them had borne ther parts in former miseries & wants

with them, and therfore (in some sort) but equall to

partake in a better condition, if ye Lord be pleased to

give it.  But cheefly they saw not how peace would

be preserved without so doing, but danger & great dis-

turbance might grow to their great hurte & prejudice

other wise.  Yet they resolved to keep such a mean in

distribution of lands, and other courses, as should not

hinder their growth in others coming to them.

    So they caled ye company togeather, and conferred

with them, and came to this conclusion, that ye trade

should be managed as before, to help to pay the debts;

and all such persons as were above named should be

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                259

reputed and inrouled for purchasers; single free men

to have a single share, and every father of a familie to

be alowed to purchass so many shares as he had per-

sons in his family; that is to say, one for him selfe,

and one for his wife, and for every child that he had

living with him, one.  As for servants, they had none,

but what either their maisters should give them out

of theirs, or their deservings should obtaine from ye com-

pany afterwards.  Thus all were to be cast into single

shares according to the order abovesaid; and so every

one was to pay his part according to his proportion

towards ye purchass, & all other debts, what ye profite

of ye trade would not reach too; viz. a single man for

a single share, a maister of a famalie for so many as

he had.  This gave all good contente.  And first ac-

cordingly the few catle which they had were devided,

which arose to this proportion; a cowe to 6. persons

or shars, & 2. goats to ye same, which were first

equalised for age & goodnes, and then lotted for;

single persons consorting with others, as they thought

good, & smaler familys likwise; and swine though

more [146] in number, yet by ye same rule.  Then

they agreed that every person or share should have

20. acres of land devided unto them, besids ye single

acres they had allready; and they appoynted were to

begin first on ye one side of ye towne, & how farr to

goe; and then on ye other side in like maner; and

so to devid it by lotte; and appointed sundrie by

260                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

name to doe it, and tyed them to certaine ruls to pro-

ceed by; as that they should only layout settable or

tillable land, at least such of it as should butt on ye

water side, (as ye most they were to layout did,) and

pass by ye rest as refuse and comune; and what they

judged fitte should be so taken.  And they were first

to agree of ye goodnes & fitnes of it before the lott

was drawne, and so it might as well prove some of

ther owne, as an other mans; and this course they

were to hould throwout.  But yet seekeing to keepe

ye people togither, as much as might be, they allso

agreed upon this order, by mutuall consente, before

any lots were cast: that whose lotts soever should fall

next ye towne, or most conveninte for nearnes, they

should take to them a neigboure or tow, whom they

best liked; and should suffer them to plant corne with

them for 4. years; and afterwards they might use as

much of theirs for as long time, if they would.  Allso

every share or 20. acers was to be laid out 5. acres

in breadth by ye water side, and 4. acres in lenght,

excepting nooks & corners, which were to be measured

as yey would bear to best advantage.  But no meadows

were to be laid out at all, nor were not of many years

after, because they were but streight of meadow grounds;

and if they had bene now given out, it would have

hindred all addition to them afterwards; but, every

season all were appoynted. wher they should mowe,

according to ye proportion of catle they had.  This

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                261

distribution gave generally good contente, and setled

mens minds.  Also they gave ye Gover & 4. or 5. of

ye spetiall men amongst them, ye houses they lived in;

ye rest were valued & equalised at an indiferent rate,

and so every man kept his owne, and he that had a

better alowed some thing to him that had a worse, as

ye valuation wente.

    Ther is one thing that fell out in ye begining of ye

winter before, which I have refferred to this place, that

I may handle ye whole matter togeither.  Ther was a

ship, with many passengers in her and sundrie goods,

bound for Virginia.  They had lost them selves at sea,

either by ye insufficiencie of ye maister, or his ilnes;

for he was sick & lame of ye scurvie, so that he could

but lye in ye cabin dore, & give direction; and it should

seeme was badly assisted either wth mate or mariners;

or else ye fear and unrulines of ye passengers were such,

as they made them stear a course betweene ye southwest

& ye norwest, that they might fall with some land,

what soever it was they cared not.  For they had been

6. weeks at sea, and had no water, nor beere, nor any

woode left, but had burnt up all their emptie caske;

only one of ye company had a hogshead of wine or 2.

which was allso allmost spente, so as they feared they

should be starved at sea, or consumed with diseases,

which made them rune this desperate course.  But it

plased God that though they came so neare ye shoulds

of Cap-Codd [147] or else ran stumbling over them in

262                                         HISTORY OF              [BOOK II.

ye night, they knew not how, they came right before

a small blind harbore, that lyes about ye midle of Mana-

moyake Bay, to ye southward of Cap-Codd, with a small

gale of wind; and about highwater toucht upon a barr

of sand that lyes before it, but had no hurte, ye sea

being smoth; so they laid out an anchore.  But towards

the eveing the wind sprunge up at sea, and was so

rough, as broake their cable, & beat them over the barr

into ye harbor, wher they saved their lives & goods,

though much were hurte with salt water; for wth beating

they had sprung ye but end of a planke or too, & beat

out ther occome; but they were soone over, and ran

on a drie flate within the harbor, close by a beach; so

at low water they gatt out their goods on drie shore,

and dried those that were wette, and saved most of

their things without any great loss; neither was ye ship

much hurt, but shee might be mended, and made ser-

visable againe.  But though they were not a litle glad

that they had thus saved their lives, yet when they had

a litle refreshed them selves, and begane to thinke on

their condition, not knowing wher they were, nor

what they should doe, they begane to be strucken

with sadnes.  But shortly after they saw some Indians

come to them in canows, which made them stand

upon their gard.  But when they heard some of ye

Indeans speake English unto them, they were not a

litle revived, especially when they heard them demand

if they were the Gover of Plimoths men, or freinds;

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                263

and yt they would bring them to ye English houses, or

carry their letters.

     They feasted these Indeans, and gave them many

giftes; and sente 2. men and a letter with them to ye

Gover, and did intreat him to send a boat unto them

with some pitch, & occume, and spiks, wth divers other

necessaries for ye mending of ther ship (which was re-

coverable).  Al1so they besought him to help them with

some corne and sundrie other things they wanted, to

enable them to make their viage to Virginia; and they

should be much bound to him, and would make satis-

faction for any thing they had, in any comodities they

had abord.  After ye Govr was well informed by ye

messengers of their condition, he caused a boate to be

made ready, and such things to be provided as they

write for; and because others were abroad upon trading,

and such other affairs, as had been fitte to send unto

them, he went him selfe, & allso carried some trading

comodities, to buy them corne of ye Indeans.  It was

no season of ye year to goe withoute ye Cape, but

understanding wher ye ship lay, he went into ye bottom

of ye bay, on ye inside, and put into a crick called

Naumskachett, wher it is not much above 2. mile over

[148] land to ye bay wher they were, wher he had

ye Indeans ready to cary over any thing to them.  Of

his arrivall they were very glad, and received the

things to mend ther ship, & other necessaries.  Allso

he bought them as much corne as they would have;

264                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

and wheras some of their sea-men were rune away

amonge the Indeans, he procured their returne to ye

ship, and so left them well furnished and contented,

being very thankfull for ye curtesies they receaved. But

after the Gover thus left them, he went into some other

harbors ther aboute and loaded his boat with corne

which he traded, and so went home.  But he had not

been at home many days, but he had notice from them,

that by the violence of a great storme, and ye bad

morring of their ship (after she was mended) she was

put a shore, and so beatten and shaken as she was now

wholy unfitte to goe to sea.  And so their request was

that they might have leave to repaire to them, and

soujourne with them, till they could have means to

convey them selves to Virginia; and that they might

have means to trasport their goods, and they would

pay for ye same, or any thing els wher with ye plan-

tation should releeve them.  Considering their distres,

their requests were granted, and all helpfullnes done

unto them; their goods transported, and them selves

& goods sheltered in their houses as well as they could.

The cheefe amongst these people was one Mr. Fells

and Mr. Sibsie, which had many servants belonging

unto them, many of them being Irish.  Some others

ther were yt had a servante or 2. a peece; but ye most

were servants, and such as were ingaged to the former

persons, who allso had ye most goods.  Affter they

were hither come, and some thing setled, the maisters

1627.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION                 265

desired some ground to imploye ther servants upon;

seing it was like to be ye latter end of ye year before

they could have passage for Virginia, and they had

now ye winter before them; they might clear some

ground, and plant a crope (seeing they had tools,

& necessaries for ye same) to help to bear their charge,

and keep their servants in imployment; and if they

had oppertunitie to departe before the same was ripe,

they would sell it on ye ground.  So they had ground

appointed them in convenient places, and Fells & some

other of them raised a great deall of corne, which they

sould at their departure.  This Fells, amongst his other

servants, had a maid servante which kept his house

& did his household affairs, and by the intimation of

some that belonged unto him, he was suspected to keep

her, as his concubine; and both of them were examined

ther upon, but nothing could be proved, and they stood

upon their justification; so with admonition they were

dismiste.  But afterward it appeard she was with child,

so he gott a small boat, & ran away with her, for

fear of punishmente.  First he went to Cap-Anne, and

after into ye bay of ye Massachussets, but could get no

passage, and had like to have been cast away; and

was forst to come againe and submite him selfe; but

they pact him away & those that belonged unto him by

the first oppertunitie, and dismiste all the rest as soone

as could, being many untoward people amongst them;

though ther were allso some that caried them selves

266                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

very orderly all ye time they stayed.  And the [149]

plantation had some benefite by them, in selling them

corne & other provisions of food for cloathing; for they

had of diverse kinds, as cloath, perpetuanes, & other

stuffs, besids hose, & shoes~ and such like comodities as

ye planters stood in need of.  So they both did good,

and received good one from another; and a cuple of

barks caried them away at ye later end of somer.  And

sundrie of them have acknowledged their thankfullnes

since from Virginia.

      That they might ye better take all convenient oppor-

tunitie to follow their trade, both to maintaine them

selves, and to disingage them of those great sumes

which they stood charged with, and bound for, they

resoloved to build a smale pinass at Manamet, a place

20. mile from ye plantation, standing on ye sea to ye

southward of them, unto which, by an other creeke on

this side, they could cary their goods, within 4. or 5.

miles, and then trasport them over land to their ves-

sell; and so avoyd the compasing of Cap-Codd, and

those deangerous shoulds, and so make any vioage to

ye southward in much shorter time, and with farr less

danger.  Also for ye saftie of their vessell & goods,

they builte a house their, and kept some servants, who

also planted corne, and reared some swine, and were

allwayes ready to goe out with ye barke when ther was

occasion.  All which tooke good effecte, and turned to

their profite.

Continue on to Book Two / pp. 267 - 310

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