THE FOUR SENTENCES
(SENTENTIARUM QUATUOR LIBRI)
by Peter Lombard
The Franciscan Archive
DE DEI UNITATE ET TRINITATE
(ON THE UNITY AND TRINITY OF GOD)
The Prologue to the Book of Sentences
Chapter 1: Every doctrine concerns things and/or signs.
Chapter 2: On the things which one is to enjoy and/or to use, and on those who use and enjoy
Chapter 3: What is it to use and to enjoy?
Chapter 1: On the Trinity and Unity.
Chapter 2: What was the intention of those writing of the Trinity?
Chapter 3: What order is to be observed, when dealing with the Trinity?
Chapter 4: On the testimonies of the Old Testament, by which the Mystery of the Trinity is delcared.
Chapter 5: On the testimonies of the New Testament, pertaining to the same.
Chapter 1: On the cognition of God through the creatures, in which the vestige of the Trinity appears.
Chapter 2: On the image and similitude of the Trinity in the human soul.
Chapter 3: On the similitude of the creating and created trinty.
Chapter 4: On the unity of the Trinity.
Chapter 1: Whether God the Father begot Himself God?
Chapter 2: Whether the Trinity may be predicated of the one God, as the one God of the Three Persons?
Chapter 1: Whether the Divine Essence begot the Son, and/or is begotten by the Father, and/or whether the Son is born from It, and/or the Holy Spirit proceeds from It?
Chapter 2: That the Son is not from nothing, but some someone or thing,
not however from matter, just as also is the Holy Spirit.
Chapter 3: Why the Word of the Father is called the Son of His Nature.
Chapter 1: Whether the Father begot the Son by will, or by necessity; and whether God is willing and/or unwilling.
Chapter 1: Whether the Father could and/or willed to beget the Son.
Chapter 2: Or whether there is some power in the Father that can beget the Son, which is not in the Son.
Chapter 1: On the truth and property of the Divine Essence.
Chapter 2: On the incommutability of the same.
Chapter 3: On the simplicity of the same.
Chapter 4: On the corporal and spiritual creature, in what manner it be multiple, and not simple.
Chapter 5: That God, though He be simple, is nevertheless spoken of in a multiple manner.
Chapter 6: That the simplicity of God is subject to none of the predicaments.
Chapter 7: That God is abusively said to be a substance.
Chapter 8: That there is not in God anything that is not God.
Chapter 1: On the distinction of the Three Persons.
Chapter 2: On the coeternity of the Father and of the Son.
Chapter 3: On the ineffable and intelligible manner of the generation.
Chapter 4: Whether there ought to be said: God always is begotten, and/or always has been begotten.
Chapter 5: On the objections of the heretics striving to prove, that the Son is not coeternal to the Father.
Chapter 1: That the Holy Spirit is properly said to be the Love of the Father and of the Son.
Chapter 2: That the same names are properly and universally accepted.
Chapter 3: That the Holy Spirit, just as He is common to the Father and to the Son, so has a common proper name.
Chapter 1: That the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, whom, however, the Greeks disavow to proceed from the Son.
Chapter 2: On the Agreement of the Latins and the Greeks in sense, and their difference in words.
Chapter I: Whether the Holy Spirit proceeds before and/or more fully from the Father than from the Son.
Chapter II: That the Holy Spirit is said principally and properly to proceed from the Father.
Chapter I: Why is the Holy Spirit, since he is from the Substance of the Father, not said to be begotten, but only proceeding?
Chapter II: Why is the Son said to proceed, when the Holy Spirit is not said to be begotten?
Chapter III: That a mortal cannot distinguish between the generation of the Son and the procession of the Holy Sprit.
Chapter IV: Whether the Holy Spirit ought to be said to be unbegotten, since He is not begotten.
Chapter I: On the twin procession of the Holy Spirit, the temporal and eternal.
Chapter II: That not only the gifts of the Holy Spirit, but also the Holy Spirit Himself is given and sent to men.
Chapter III: Whether or not holy men could give the Holy Spirit.
Chapter I: That the Holy Spirit is given by Himself, and the Son is sent by Himself
Chapter II: In what manner is the mission of Each to be understood.
Chapter III: That the Son has also been sent by the Holy Spirit.
Chapter IV: That the Son has also been given by Himself.
Chapter V: In what manner this must be understood: I have not come on My own.
Chapter VI: Whether the Son has been sent only once, or often.
Chapter VII: On the two manners of the Son’s mission.
Chapter VIII: That according to one manner He has been sent once, according to the other often; and according to one manner He is said (to have been) sent into the world, according to the other He is not.
Chapter IX: For what reason is the Father not said to be sent.
Chapter X: That the Son and the Holy Spirit are not as ones lesser than the Father, because They have been sent.
Chapter I: On the Mission of the Holy Spirit, which comes to be in two manners, visibly and invisibly.
Chapter II: That the Son, according to which He is Man, is not merely less than the Father, but also less than the Holy Spirit.
Chapter I: That the Holy Spirit is the charity, by which we love God and neighbor.
Chapter II: That fraternal love is God, and not the Father and/or the Son, but only the Holy Spirit.
Chapter III: That this verse: ‘God is charity’, has not been said in the manner of a cause, as this verse: ‘Thou art my patience and my hope.’
Chapter IV: In what manner the Holy Spirit is sent and/or given to us.
Chapter V: Whether the Holy Spirit is increased in a man, and/or is less and more had and/or given, and whether He is given to one having and to one not having.
Chapter VI: That some say, that the charity of God and neighbor is not the Holy Spirit.
Chapter I: Whether it must be conceded, that gifts are given through a gift.
Chapter II: Whether the Holy Spirit is said to be ‘a gift’ for the same reason, that He is said to be given or granted.
Chapter III: That just as the Son by being born accepted not only, ‘to be the Son’, but also ‘to be the Essence’, so the Holy Spirit by proceeding accepted not only, ‘to be a gift’, but ‘to be the Essence’.
Chapter IV: That the Holy Spirit is said to be a ‘gift’ and a ‘granted’ according to the two aforesaid manners of procession, who, according to which He is a gift, is referred to the Father and the Son, according to which a given, to Him who gives and to those to whom He is given.
Chapter V: Whether the Son, since He has been given to us, can be said to be ‘ours’, as the Holy Spirit is.
Chapter VI: Whether the Holy Spirit is referred to Himself.
Chapter I: On the equality of the Three Persons.
Chapter II: That eternity and magnitude and power in God is one, even if they seem to be diverse.
Chapter III: That none of the Persons exceeds the Other in magnitude, because one Person is not greater than the Other, nor are Two something more than One, nor Three than Two and/or One.
Chapter IV: In what manner is the Father said to be in the Son an the Son in the Father and the Holy Spirit in Each.
Chapter V: That None of the Persons is a part in the Trinity.
Chapter VI: For what reason are the Three Persons said to be most highly one.
Chapter VII: When we say, that the Three Persons are the one Essence, neither do we predicate It as a genus of species nor as a species of individuals, because it is not that the Essence is a genus and a Person a species, and/or the Essence a species and the Persons individuals.
Chapter VIII: That neither according to a material cause are the Three Persons said to be the one Essence.
Chapter IX: Nor are the Three Persons thus said to be the one Essence, as three men are one in nature and/or of one nature.
Chapter X: Whether the Three Persons differ in number, who have been distinguished by properties.
Chapter XI: For what reason are the Three Persons together not something greater than One (Person).
Chapter XII: That God is not to be said to be “threefold”, but “triune”.
Chapter I: That None of the Persons exceeds Another in power.
Chapter II: That the Son is no less able than the Father.
Chapter III: On the objections of heretics against this, and the response of Catholics.
Chapter I: In what manner can there be said: ‘the Father alone’, and/or ‘the Son alone’ and/or ‘the Holy Spirit alone’, since They are inseparable.
Chapter II: Whether there ought to be said: ‘the Father alone is God’, and/or ‘the Son alone is God’, and/or ‘the Holy Spirit alone is God’; or whether, ‘the Father is the only God’, ‘the Son is the only God’, ‘the Holy Spirit is the only God’.
Chapter III: In what manner is the Trinity said (to be) God alone, since He is with the spirits and the souls.
Chapter I: On the difference of the names, which we use speaking of God.
Chapter II: On those which convene with God temporally and are said relatively.
Chapter III: On this name which is “Trinity”.
Chapter IV: On those which properly pertain to the each Person, and on those which signify the Unity of the Essence.
Chapter I: On this name which is “Person”, since it is said according to substance, it is accepted not singularly, but plurally in the Most High.
Chapter II: By what necessity has there been said by the Latins “Three Persons”, and by the Greeks “Three Hypostases and/or Substances”.
Chapter III: For what reason do we not say that the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are “Three Gods”, since we do say that they are “Three Persons”.
Chapter IV: Why do we not say “Three Essences”, since (we do say) “Three Persons”.
Chapter V: That in the Trinity there is not a diversity and/or singularity and/or solitude, but a Unity and a Trinity and distinction and identity.
Chapter VI: That God ought not be said (to be) “manifold”.
Chapter I: What is signified by these names: “one”, “two”, “three”, “triune” and/or “trinity”, “many” and/or “plurality”, “distinction” and/or “distinct”, when we use them, speaking of God.
Chapter I: What is signified by this name “Person” in the plural number, that is, when there is said “Persons”.
Chapter II: On the threefold acceptance of this name “Person” in the Trinity.
Chapter III: Out of which sense is there said: One, the Person of the Father, Another, the Person of the Son, Another, that of the Holy Spirit; or the Father is one in person, the Son another, the Holy Spirit another.
Chapter I: On this name “hypostasis”.
Chapter II: On the properties of the Persons and on the names relative to these.
Chapter III: That not all names are said of God according to substance; for certain ones are said according to relation, however nothing is said according to accident.
Chapter IV: For what reason is it said that it is proper to the Only-Begotten, to be the Son of God, since even men are the sons God.
Chapter V: That a man is said to be a “son” of the Trinity, and the Trinity, the “father” of men.
Chapter VI: That the Holy Spirit is said to be “the Gift” by the same property, by which He is said to be “the Holy Spirit”, and in each manner relatively to the Father and the Son.
Chapter VII: Whether the Father and/or the Son and/or the Trinity Itself can be said to be a “holy spirit”.
Chapter VIII: That not all the names, which are said relatively, respond, according to their terms, to one another in reverse.
Chapter I: What are those properties, by which the Persons are distinguished.
Chapter II: That it is not entirely the same to say, that He is the Father and that He has begotten and/or has a Son.
Chapter III: That the properties determine the Hypostases, not the Substance, that is, the Nature.
PART II: That there are other names for the Persons, which also signify Their personal properties.
Chapter IV: On the general rule for those which regard themselves, and for those which are said relatively.
Chapter V: Or whether according to substance there is said “God from God”, and sayings of this kind.
Chapter I: That there are not only three properties of the Persons.
Chapter II: Whether the Father alone ought to be said to be “not-begotten” and/or “not-a-son”, just as He is said to be “unbegotten”.
Chapter III: On the property, which “unbegotten” notes.
Chapter IV: The response of St. Ambrose against the Arians concerning the Unbegotten.
Chapter V: Whether ‘to be a father’ and ‘to be a son’ is diverse.
Chapter VI: Whether wisdom is said to be begotten according to relation, and/or according to substance.
Chapter VII: On “image”.
Chapter I: On principium.
Chapter II: That from eternity the Father is a principle and the Son, but not the Holy Spirit.
Chapter III: In what manner the Father is the principle of the Son, and He with the Son the principle of the Holy Spirit.
Chapter IV: Whether the Father and the Son are the principle of the Holy Spirit according to the same notion.
(For the Publication Schedule for the Rest of Book I, of Master Peter’s Book of Sentences, see The Commentary Project)
DE RERUM CREATIONE ET FORMATIONE CORPORALIUM ET SPIRITUALIUM ET ALIIS PLURIBUS EO PERTINENTIUBUS
DE INCARNATIONE VERBI ET HUMANI GENERIS REPARATIONE
DE DOCTRINA SIGNORUM
Chapter 1: On the Sacraments.
Chapter 2: What is a Sacrament.
Chapter 3: What is a sign.
Chapter 4: How sign and Sacrament differ.
Chapter 5: Why the Sacraments have been instituted.
Chapter 6: On the difference of the Old and New Sacraments.
Chapter 7: On circumcision.
Chapter 8: The remedy which they had, who were before circumcision.
Chapter 9: On the institution of circumcision and its cause.
Chapter 10: On the little ones departed before the eighth day, on which circumcision was done.
Return to List of Authors and Books