by William Bradford


Book Two / pp. 109 - 151 

The 2. Booke.

     THE rest of this History (if God give me life, &

opportunitie) I shall, for brevitis sake, handle by way

of annalls, noteing only the heads of principall things,

and passages as they fell in order of time, and may

seeme to be profitable to know, or to make use of.

And this may be as ye 2. Rooke.

The remainder of Ano: 1620.

     I SHALL a litle returne backe and begine with a

combination made by them before they came ashore,

being ye first foundation of their govermente in this

place; occasioned partly by ye discontented & mutinous

speeches that some of the strangers amongst them had

let fall from them in ye ship --That when they came

a shore they would use their owne libertie; for none

had power to comand them, the patente they had

being for Virginia, and not for New-england, which

belonged to an other Goverment, with which ye Vir-

ginia Company had nothing to doe.  And partly that

shuch an [54] acte by them done (this their condi-

tion considered) might be as firme as any patent, and

in some respects more sure. 

         The forme was as followeth.

110                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     In ye name of God, Amen. We whose names are under-

writen, the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord, King

James, by ye grace of God, of Great Britaine, Franc, & Ireland

king, defender of ye faith, &c., haveing undertaken, for ye glorie

of God, and advancemente of ye Christian faith, and honour of

our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye

Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly &

mutualy in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant

& combine our selves togeather into a civill body politick, for

our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of ye ends

aforesaid; and by vertue hearof to enacte, constitute, and

frame such just & equall lawes, ordinances, acts, constitu-

tions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most

meete & convenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie, unto

which we promise all due submission and obedience.  In witnes

wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd

ye 11. of November, in ye year of ye raigne of our soveraigne

lord, King James, of England, France, & Ireland ye eighteenth,

and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth.       Ano: Dom. 1620.

      After this they chose, or rather confirmed, Mr. John

Carver (a man godly & well approved amongst them)

their Governour for that year.  And after they had

provided a place for their goods, or common store,

(which were long in unlading for want of boats,

foulnes of winter weather, and sicknes of diverce,)

and begune some small cottages for their habitation,

as time would admitte, they mette and consulted of

lawes & orders, both for their civill & military Gov-

ermente, ye necessitie of their condition did re-

quire, still adding therunto as urgent occasion in

severall times, and as cases did require.

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                111

     In these hard & difficulte beginings they found some

discontents & murmurings arise amongst some, and

mutinous speeches & carriags in other; but they were

soone quelled & overcome by ye wisdome, patience,

and just & equall carrage of things by ye Govr and

better part, wch clave faithfully togeather in ye maine.

But that which was most sadd & lamentable was,

that in 2. or 3. moneths time halfe of their com-

pany dyed, espetialy in Jan: & February, being ye

depth of winter, and wanting houses & other com-

forts; being infected with ye scurvie & [55] other

diseases, which this long vioage & their inacomodate

condition had brought upon them; so as ther dyed

some times 2. or 3. of a day, in ye foresaid time;

that of 100. & odd persons, scarce 50. remained.  And

of these in ye time of most distres, ther was but 6.

or 7. sound persons, who, to their great comendations

be it spoken, spared no pains, night nor day, but

with abundance of toyle and hazard of their owne

health, fetched them woode, made them fires, drest

them meat, made their beads, washed their lothsome

cloaths, cloathed & uncloathed them; in a word, did

all ye homly & necessarie offices for them wch dainty

& quesie stomacks cannot endure to hear named; and

all this willingly & cherfully, without any grudging

in ye least, shewing herein their true love unto their

freinds & bretheren.  A rare example & worthy to

be remembred.  Tow of these 7. were Mr. William

112                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

Brewster, ther reverend Elder, & Myles Standish, ther

Captein & military comander, unto whom my selfe,

& many others, were much beholden in our low &

sicke condition.  And yet the Lord so upheld these

persons, as in this generall calamity they were not at

all infected either with sicknes, or lamnes.  And what

I have said of these, I may say of many others who

dyed in this generall vissitation, & others yet living,

that whilst they had health, yea, or any strength con-

tinuing, they were not wanting to any that had need

of them.  And I doute not but their recompence is

with ye Lord.

     But I may not hear pass by an other remarkable

passage not to be forgotten.  As this calamitie fell

among ye passengers that were to be left here to

plant, and were hasted a shore and made to drinke

water, that ye sea-men might have ye more bear, and

one* in his sicknes desiring but a small cann of

beere, it was answered, that if he were their owne

father he should have none; the disease begane to

fall amongst them also, so as allmost halfe of their

company dyed before they went away, and many of

their officers and lustyest men, as ye boatson, gunner,

3. quarter-maisters, the cooke, & others.  At wch ye

mr. was something strucken and sent to ye sick a

shore and tould ye Govr he should send for beer for

them that had need of it, though he drunke water

*Which was this author him selfe.

1620.]           PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                113

homward bound.  But now amongst his company [56]

ther was farr another kind of carriage in this miserie

then amongst ye passengers; for they that before had

been bootie companions in drinking, & joyllity in ye

time of their health & wellfare, beoane now to deserte

one another in this calamities saing, they would not

hasard ther lives for them, they should be infected

by coming to help them in their cabins, and so, after

they came to dye by it, would doe litle or nothing

for them, but if they dyed let them dye.  But shuch

of ye passengers as were et abord shewed them what

mercy they could, wch made some of their harts re-

lente, as ye boatson (& some others), who was a

prowd yonge man, and would often curse & scofe at

ye passengers; but when he grew weak, they had

compassion on him and helped him; then he con-

fessed he did not deserve it at their hands, he had

abused them in word & deed. O! saith he, you, I

now see, shew your love like Christians indeed one

to another, but we let one another lye & dye like

doggs.  Another lay cursing, his wife, saing, if it had

not ben for her he had never come this unlucky viage,

and anone cursing his felows, saing he had done this

& that, for some of them, he had spente so much,

& so much, amongst them, and they were now weary

of him, and did not help him, having need.  Another

gave his companion all he had, if he died, to help

him in his weaknes; he went and got a litle spise

114                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

& made him a mess of meat once or twise, and be-

cause he dyed not so soone as he expected, he went

amongst his fellows, & swore ye rogue would cousen

him, he would see him choaked before he made him

any more meate; and yet ye pore fellow dyed before


     All this while ye Indians came skulking about them,

and would sometimes show them selves aloofe of, but

when any aproached near them, they would rune away.

And once they stoale away their tools wher they had

been at worke, & were gone to diner.  But about ye

16. of March a certaine Indian came bouldly amongst

them, and spoke to them in broken English, which

they could well understand, but marvelled at it. At

length they understood by discourse with him, that he

was not of these parts, but belonged to ye eastrene

parts, wher some English-ships came to fhish, with

whom he was aquainted, & could name sundrie of

them by their names, amongst whom he had gott his

language.  He became proftable to them [57] in

aquainting them with many things concerning ye state

of ye cuntry in ye east-parts wher he lived, which was

afterwards profitable unto them; as also of ye people

hear, of their names, number, & strength; of their

situation & distance from this place, and who was

cheefe amongst them.  His name was Samaset; he

tould them also of another Indian whos name was

Squanto, a native of this place, who had been in Eng-

1620.]          PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.               115

land & could speake better English then him selfe.

Being, after some time of entertainments & gifts, dis-

mist, a while after he came againe, & 5. more with

him, & they brought againe all ye tooles that were

stolen away before, and made way for ye coming of

their great Sachem, called Massasoyt; who, about 4.

or 5. days after, came with the cheefe of his freinds

& other attendance, with the aforesaid Squanto.  With

whom, after frendly entertainment, & some gifts given

him, they made a peace with him (which hath now

continued this 24. years) in these terms.

     1.  That neither he nor any of his, should injurie

or doe hurte to any of their peopl.

      2.  That if any of his did any hurte to any of

theirs, he should send ye offender, that they might

punish him.

      3.  That if any thing, were taken away from any of

theirs, he should cause it to be restored; and they

should doe ye like to his.

     4.  If any did unjustly warr against him, they would

aide him; if any did warr against them, he should

aide them.

     5.  He should send to his neighbours confederats,

to certifie them of this, that they might not wrong

them, but might be likewise comprised in ye condi-

tions of peace.

     6.  That when ther men came to them, they should

leave their bows & arrows behind them.

116                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     After these things he returned to his place caled

Sowams, some 40. mile from this place, but Squanto

contiued with them, and was their interpreter, and

was a spetiall instrument sent of God for their good

beyond their expectation.  He directed them how to

set their corne, wher to take fish, and to procure other

comodities, and was also their pilott to bring them to

unknowne places for their profitt, and never left them

till he dyed.  He was a native [58] of the place, &

scarce any left alive besids him selfe.  He was caried

away with diverce others by one Hunt, a mr. of a

ship, who thought to sell them for slaves in Spaine;

but he got away for England, and was entertained by a

marchante in London, & imployed to New-found-

land & other parts, & lastly brought hither into these

parts by one Mr. Dermer, a gentle-man imployed by

Sr. Ferdinando Gorges & others, for discovery, & other

designes in these parts.  Of whom I shall say some

thing, because it is mentioned in a booke set forth

Ano: 1622. by ye Presidente & Counsell for New-Eng-

land,*  that he made ye peace betweene ye salvages

of these parts & ye English; of which this planta-

tion, as it is intimated, had ye benefite.  But what a

peace it was, may apeare by what befell him & his


      This Mr. Dermer was hear the same year that these

people came, as apears by a relation written by him,

*Page 17.

162O.]                 PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                117

& given me by a freind, bearing date June 30. Ano:

1620.  And they came in Novembr: following, so ther

was but 4. months differance.  In which relation to

his honored freind, he hath these passages of this very


     I will first begine (saith he) wth that place from whence

Squanto, or Tisquantem, was taken away; wch in Cap: Smiths

mape is called Plimoth: and I would that Plimoth had ye like

comodities.  I would that the first plantation might hear be

seated, if ther come to the number of 50. persons, or upward.

Otherwise at Charlton, because ther ye savages are lese to be

feared.  The Pocanawkits, which live to ye west of Plimoth,

bear an inveterate malice to ye English, and are of more

streingth then all ye savags from thence to Penobscote.  Their

desire of revenge was occasioned by an English man, who hav-

ing many of them on bord, made a great slaughter with their

murderers & smale shot, when as (they say) they offered no

injurie on their parts.  Whether they were English or no, it

may be douted; yet they beleeve they were, for ye Frenche

have so possest them; for which cause Squanto canot deney

but they would have kiled me when I was at Namasket, had

he not entreated hard for me.  The soyle of ye borders of

[59] this great bay, may be compared to most of ye planta-

tions which I have seene in Virginia.  The land is of diverce

sorts; for Patuxite is a hardy but strong soyle, Nawsel &

Saughtughtett are for ye most part a blakish & deep mould,

much like that wher groweth ye best Tobaco in Virginia.

In ye botume of yt great bay is store of Codd & basse, or

mulett, &c.

But above all he comends Pacanawkite for ye richest

soyle, and much open ground fitt for English graine, &c.

118                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

Massachussets is about 9. leagues from Plimoth, & situate

in ye mids betweene both, is full of ilands & peninsules very

fertill for ye most parte.

     With sundrie shuch relations which I forbear to tran-

scribe, being now better knowne then they were to him.

      He was taken prisoner by ye Indeans at Manamoiak

(a place not farr from hence, now well knowne).  He

gave them what they demanded for his liberty, but

when they had gott what they desired, they kept him

still & indevored to kill his men; but he was freed

by seasing on some of them, and kept them bound

till they gave him a cannows load of corne.  Of

which, see Purch: lib. 9. fol. 1778.  But this was

An°: 1619.

     After ye writing of ye former relation he came to

ye Ile of Chapawack (which lyes south of this place

in ye way to Virginia), and ye foresaid Squanto wth

him, wher he going a shore amongst ye Indans to

trad, as he used to doe, was betrayed & assaulted by

them, & all his men slaine, but one that kept the boat;

but him selfe gott abord very sore wounded, & they

had cut of his head upon ye cndy of his boat, had

not ye man reskned him with a sword.  And so they

got away, & made shift to gett into Virginia, wher

he dyed; whether of his wounds or ye diseases of

ye cuntrie, or both togeather, is uncertaine.  [60] By

all which it may appeare how farr these people were

from peace, and with what danger this plantation was

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                119

begune, save as ye powerfull hand of the Lord did

protect them.  These things* were partly the reason

why they kept aloofe & were so long before they

came to the English.  An other reason (as after them

selvs made know) was how aboute 3. years before, a

French-ship was cast away at Cap-Codd, but ye men

gott ashore, & saved their lives, and much of their

victails, & other goods; but after ye lndeans heard

of it, they geathered togeather from these parts, and

never left watching & dogging them till they got

advantage, and kild them all but 3. or 4. which they

kept, & sent from one Sachem to another, to make

sporte with, and used them worse then slaves; (of

which ye foresaid Mr. Dermer redeemed 2. of them;)

and they conceived this ship was now come to re-

venge it.

     Also, (as after was made knowne,) before they came

to ye English to make freindship, they gott all the

Powachs of ye cuntrie, for 3. days togeather, in a

horid and divellish maner to curse & execrate them

with their cunjurations, which asembly & service they

held in a darke & dismale swampe.

     But to returnee.  The spring now approaching, it

pleased God the mortalitie begane to cease amongst

them, and ye sick and lame recovered apace, which

put as it were new life into them; though they had

borne their sadd affliction with much patience & con-

*Thing in the manuscript.

120                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

tentednes, as I thinke any people could doe.  But it

was ye Lord which upheld them, and had beforehand

prepared them; many having long borne ye yoake, yea

from their youth.  Many other smaler maters omite,

sundrie of them having been allready published in a

Jurnall made by one of ye company; and some other

passages of jurneys and relations allredy published, to

which I referr those that are willing to know them

more perticulerly.  And being now come to ye 25.

of March I shall begine ye year 1621.

[61] Anno. 1621.

    THEY now begane to dispatch ye ship away which

brought them over, which lay tille aboute this time,

or ye begining of Aprill.  The reason on their parts

why she stayed so long, was ye necessitie and danger

that lay upon them, for it was well towards ye ende

of Desember before she could land any thing hear, or

they able to receive any thing ashore.  Afterwards,

ye 14. of Jan: the house which they had made for a

generall randevoze by casulty fell afire, and some were

faine to retire abord for shilter.  Then the sicknes

begane to fall sore amongst them, and ye weather so

bad as they could not make much sooner any dispatch.

Againe, the Govr & cheefe of them, seeing so many

dye, and fall downe sick dayly, thought it no wisdom

to send away the ship, their condition considered, and

ye danger they stood in from ye Indeans, till they

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                121

could procure some shelter; and therfore thought it

better to draw some more charge upon them selves

& freinds, then hazard all.  The mr. and sea-men like-

wise, though before they hasted ye passengers a shore

to be goone, now many of their men being dead, &

of ye ablest of them, (as is before noted,) and of

ye rest many lay sick & weake, ye mr. durst not put

to sea, till he saw his men begine to recover, and ye

hart of winter over.

     Afterwards they (as many as were able) began to

plant ther corne, in which servise Squanto stood them

in great stead, showing them both ye maner how to

set it, and after how to dress & tend it.  Also he

tould them excepte they gott fish & set with it (in

these old grounds) it would come to nothing, and he

showed them yt in ye midle of Aprill they should have

store enough come up ye brooke, by which they be-

gane to build, and taught them how to take it, and

wher to get other provissions necessary for them; all

which they found true by triall & experience.  Some

English seed they sew, as wheat & pease, but it came

not to good, eather by ye badnes of ye seed, or latenes

of ye season, or both, or some other defecte. 

     [62]  In this month of Aprill whilst they were bussie

about their seed, their Govr (Mr. John Carver) came

out of ye feild very sick, it being a hott day; he

complained greatly of his head, and lay downe, and

within a few howers his sences failed, so as he never

122                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

spake more till he dyed, which was within a few days

after.  Whoss death was much lamented, and caused

great heavines amongst them, as ther was cause.  He

was buried in ye best maner they could, with some

vollies of shott by all that bore armes; and his wife,

being a weak woman, dyed within 5. or 6. weeks after


     Shortly after William Bradford was chosen Gover

in his stead, and being not yet recoverd of his ilnes,

in which he had been near ye point of death; Isaak

Allerton was chosen to be an Asistante unto him,

who, by renewed election every year, continued sundry

years togeather, which I hear note once for all.

     May 12. was ye first mariage in this place, which,

according to ye laudable custome of ye Low-Cuntries,

in which they had lived, was thought most requisite

to be performed by the magistrate, as being a civill

thing, upon which many questions aboute inheritances

doe depende, with other things most proper to their

cognizans, and most consonante to ye scripturs, Ruth

4. and no wher found in ye gospell to be layed on

ye ministers as a part of their office.  "This decree

or law about mariage was published by ye Stats of

ye Low-Cuntries Ano: 1590.  That those of any re-

ligion, after lawfull and open publication, coming before
ye magistrats, in ye Town or Stat-house, were to be

orderly (by them) maried one to another."   Petets

Hist. fol: 1029.  And this practiss hath continued

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                123

amongst, not only them, but hath been followed by

all ye famous churches of Christ in these parts to

this time, -- Ano: 1646.

     Haveing in some sorte ordered their bussines at

home, it was thought meete to send some abroad to

see their new freind Massasoyet, and to bestow upon

him some gratuitie to bind him ye faster unto them;

as also that hearby they might veiw ye countrie, and

see in what maner he lived, what strength he had

aboute him, and how ye ways were to his place, if

at any time they should have occasion.  So ye 2. of

July they sente Mr. Edward Winslow & Mr. Hopkins,

with ye foresaid Squanto for ther guid, who gave him

a suite of cloaths, and a horsemans coate, with some

other small things, which were kindly accepted; but

they found but short comons, and came both weary

& hungrie home.  For ye lndeans used then to have

nothing [63] so much corne as they have since ye

English have stored them with their hows, and seene

their industrie in breaking up new grounds therwith.

They found his place to be 40. miles from hence, ye

soyle good, & ye people not many, being dead &

abundantly wasted in ye late great mortalitie which

fell in all these parts aboute three years before ye

coming of ye English, wherin thousands of them dyed,

they not being able to burie one another; ther sculs

and bones were found in many places lying still above

ground, where their houses & dwellings had been; a

124                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

very sad spectackle to behould.  But they brought

word that ye Narighansets lived but on ye other side

of that great bay, & were a strong people, & many

in number, living compacte togeather; & had not been

at all touched with this wasting plague.

     Aboute ye later end of this month, one John Billing-

ton lost him selfe in ye woods, & wandered up &

downe some 5. days, living on beries & what he could

find.  At length he light on an Indean plantation, 20.

mils south of this place, called Manamet, they conveid

him furder of, to Nawsett, among those peopl that had

before set upon ye English when they were costing,

whilest ye ship lay at ye Cape, as is before noted. 

But ye Gover caused him to be enquired for among

ye Indeans, and at length Massassoyt sent word wher

he was, and ye Gover sent a shalop for him, & had

him delivered.  Those people also came and made their

peace; and they gave full satisfaction to those whose

corne they had found & taken when they were at Cap-


     Thus ther peace & aquaintance was prety well estab-

lisht wth the natives aboute them; and ther was an

other Indean called Hobamack come to live amongst

them, a proper lustie man, and a man of accounte

for his vallour & parts amongst ye Indeans, and con-

tinued very faithfull _and constant to ye English till

he dyed.  He & Squanto being gone upon bussines

amonge ye Indeans, at their returne (whether it was

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.               125

out of envie to them or malice to the English) ther

was a Sachem called Corbitant, alyed to Massassoyte,

but never any good freind to ye English to "this day,

mett with them at an lndean towne caled Namassakett

14. miles to ye west of this place, and begane to

quarell wth [64] them, and offered to stabe Hobamack;

but being a lusty man, he cleared him selfe of him,

and came runing away all sweating and tould ye Govr

what had befalne him, and he feared they had killed

Squanto, for they threatened them both, and for no

other cause but because they were freinds to ye Eng-

lish, and servisable unto them.  Upon this ye Gover

taking counsell, it was conceivd not fitt to be borne;

for if they should suffer their freinds & messengers

thus to be wronged, they should have none would

cleave unto them, or give them any inteligence, or

doe them serviss afterwards; but nexte they would

fall upon them selves.  Whereupon it was resolved to

send ye Captaine & 14. men well armed, and to goe

& fall upon them in ye night; and if they found that

Squanto was kild, to cut of Corbitants head, but not

to hurt any but those that had a hand in it.  Hoba-

mack was asked if he would goe & be their guid,

& bring them ther before day.  He said he would, &

bring them to ye house wher the man lay, and show

them which was he.  So they set forth ye 14. of

August, and beset ye house round; the Captin giving

charg to let none pass out, entred ye house to search

126                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

for him.  But he was goone away that day, so they

mist him; but understood yt. Squanto was alive, &

that he had only threatened to kill him, & made an

offer to stabe him but did not.  So they withheld

and did no more hurte, & ye people came trembling,

& brought them the best provissions they had, after

they were aquainted by Hobamack what was only in-

tended.  Ther was 3. sore wounded which broak out

of ye house, and asaid to pass through ye garde. 

These they brought home with them, & they had

their wounds drest & cured, and sente home.  After

this they had many gratulations from diverce sachims,

and much firmer peace; yea, those of ye Iles of Capa-

wack sent to make frendship; and this Corbitant him

selfe used ye mediation of Massassoyte to make his

peace, but was shie to come neare them a longe while


     After this, ye 18. of Sepembr: they sente out ther

shalop to the Massachusets, with 10. men, and Squanto

for their guid and [65] interpreter, to discover and

veiw that bay, and trade with ye natives; the which

they performed, and found kind entertainement.  The

people were much affraid of ye Tarentins, a people to

ye eastward which used to come in harvest time and

take away their corne, & many times kill their persons.

They returned in saftie, and brought home a good

quanty of beaver, and made reporte of ye place, wish-

ing they had been ther seated; (but it seems ye Lord,

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                127

who assignes to all men ye bounds of their habitations,

had apoynted it for an other use.  And thus they

found ye Lord to be with them in all their ways, and

to blesse their outgoings & incomings, for which let

his holy name have ye praise for ever, to all posteritie.

     They begane now to gather in ye small harvest they

had, and to fitte up their houses and dwellings against

winter, being all well recovered in health & strenght,

and had all things in good plenty; for as some were

thus imployed in affairs abroad, others were excersised

in fishing, aboute codd, & bass, & other fish, of which

yey tooke good store, of which every family had their

portion.  All ye somer ther was no wante.  And now

begane to come in store of foule, as winter aproached,

of which this place did abound when they came first

(but afterward decreased by degrees).  And besids

water foule, ther was great store of wild Turkies, of

which they tooke many, besids venison, &c.  Besids

they had aboute a peck a meale a weeke to a person,

or now since harvest, Indean corne to yt proportion.

Which made many afterwards write so largly of their

plenty hear to their freinds in England, which were

not rained, but true reports.

     In Novembr, about yt time twelfe month that them

selves came, ther came in a small ship to them unex-

pected or loked for,* in which came Mr. Cushman (so

much spoken of before) and with him 35. persons to

*She came ye 9. to ye Cap.

128                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

remaine & live in ye plantation; which did not a litle

rejoyce them.  And they when they came a shore and

found all well, and saw plenty of vitails in every

house, were no less glade.  For most of them were

lusty yonge men, and many of them wild enough,

who litle considered whither or aboute what they

wente, till they came into ye harbore at Cap-Codd,

and ther saw nothIng but a naked and barren place.

They then begane to thinke what should become of

them, if the people here were dead or cut of by ye

Indeans.  They begane to consulte (upon some speeches

that some of ye sea-men had cast out) to take ye sayls

from ye yeard least ye ship [66] should gett away and

leave them ther.  But ye mr. hereing of it, gave them

good words, and tould them if any thing but well

should have befallne ye people hear, he hoped he had

vitails enough to cary them to Virginia, and whilst he

had a bitt they should have their parte; which gave

them good satisfaction.  So they were all landed; but

ther was not so much as bisket-cake or any other

victialls* for them, neither had they any beding, but

some sory things they had in their cabins, nor pot,

nor pan, to drese any meate in; nor overmany cloaths,

for many of them had brusht away their coats & cloaks

at Plimoth as they came.  But ther was sent over some

burching-lane suits in ye ship, out of which they were

supplied.  The plantation was glad of this addition

          *Nay I they were faille to spare ye shipe some to carry her home.

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                129

of strenght, but could have wished that many of them

had been of beter condition, and all of them beter

furnished with provissions; but yt could not now be


     In this ship Mr. Weston sent a large leter to Mr.

Carver, ye late Gover, now deseased, full of complaints

& expostulations aboute former passagess at Hampton;

and ye keeping ye shipe so long in ye country, and

returning her without lading, &c., which for brevitie

I omite.  The rest is as followeth.

Part of Mr. Westons letter.

     I durst never aquainte ye adventurers with ye alteration of

ye couditions first agreed on betweene us, which I have since

been very glad of, for I am well assured had they knowne as

much as I doe, they would not have adventured a halfe-peny

of what was necesary for this ship.  That you sent no lading

in the ship is wonderfull, and worthily distasted.  I know your

weaknes was the cause of it, and I beleeve more weaknes of

judgmente, then weaknes of hands.  A quarter of ye time you

spente in discoursing, arguing, & consulting, would have done

much more; but that is past, &c.  If you mean, bona fide, to

performe the conditions agreed upon, doe us ye favore to coppy

them out faire, and subscribe them with ye principall of your

names.  And likwise give us accounte as perticulerly as you

can how our moneys were laid out.  And then I shall be able

to give them some satisfaction, whom I am now forsed with.

I good words to shift of.  And consider that ye life of the bussi-

nes depends on ye lading of this ship, which, if you doe to any

good purpose, that I may be freed from ye great sums I have

disbursed for ye former, and must doe for the later, I promise

130                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

you I will never quit ye bussines, though all the other adventurers


     [67]  We have procured you a Charter, the best we could,

which is beter then your former, and with less limitation.  For

any thing yt is els worth writting, Mr. Cushman can informe

you.  I pray write instantly for Mr. Robinson to come to you.

And so praying God to blesse you with all graces nessessary

both for this life & that to come, I rest

Your very loving frend,


London, July 6. 1621.

This ship (caled ye Fortune) was speedily dispatcht

away, being laden with good clapbord as full as she

could stowe, and 2. hoggsheads of beaver and otter

skins, which they gott with a few trifling comodities

brought with them at first, being alltogeather unpro-

vided for trade; neither was ther any amongst them

that ever saw a beaver skin till they came hear, and

were informed by Squanto.  The fraight was estimated

to be worth near 500li. Mr. Cushman returned backe

also with this ship, for so Mr. Weston & ye rest had

apoynted him, for their better information.  And he

doubted not, nor them selves neither, but they should

have a speedy supply; considering allso how by Mr.

Cushmans perswation, and letters received from Ley-

den, wherin they willed them so to doe, they yeelded*

to ye afforesaid conditions, and subscribed them with

their hands.  But it proved other wise, for Mr. Wes-

* Yeeled in the manuscript.

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                131

ton, who had made yt large promise in his leter, (as

is before noted,) that if all ye rest should fall of, yet

he would never quit ye bussines, but stick to them,

if they yeelded to ye conditions, and sente some lad-

ing in ye ship; and of this Mr. Cushman was confi-

dent, and confirmed ye same from his mouth, & serious

protestations to him selfe before he came.  But all

proved but wind, for he was ye first and only man

that forsooke them, and that before he so much as

heard of ye returne of this ship, or knew what was

done; (so vaine is ye confidence in man.)  But of this

more in its place.

     A leter in answer to his write to Mr. Carver, was

sente to him from ye Govr, of which so much as is

pertenente to ye thing in hand I shall hear inserte.

     Sr:  Your large letter writen to Mr. Carver, and dated ye

6. of July, 1621, I have received ye 10. of  Novembr, wherin

(after ye apologie made for your selfe) you lay many heavie

imputations upon him and us all.  Touching him, he is de-

parted this life, and now is at rest [68] in ye Lord from all

those troubls and incoumbrances with which we are yet to

strive.  He needs not my appologie; for his care and pains

was so great for ye commone good, both ours and yours, as

that therwith (it is thought) he oppressed him selfe and short-

ened his days; of whose loss we cannot sufficiently complaine.

At great charges in this adventure, I confess you have beene,

and many losses may sustaine; but ye loss of his and many

other honest and industrious mens lives, cannot be vallewed

at any prise.  Of ye one, ther may be hope of recovery, but

ye other no recompence can make good.  But I will not in-

132                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

siste in generalls, but come more perticulerly to ye things them

selves.  You greatly blame us for keping ye ship so long in

ye countrie, and then to send her away emptie.  She lay 5.

weks at Cap-Codd, whilst with many a weary step (after a

long journey) and the indurance of many a hard brunte, we

sought out in the foule winter a place of habitation.  Then

we went in so tedious a time to make provission to sheelter

us and our goods, aboute wch labour, many of our armes &

leggs can tell us to this day we were not necligent.  But it

pleased God to vissite us then, with death dayly, and with

so generall a disease, that the living were scarce able to burie

the dead; and ye well not in any measure sufficiente to tend

ye sick.  And now to be so greatly blamed, for not fraighting

ye ship, doth indeed goe near us, and much discourage us. But

you say you know we will pretend weaknes; and doe you think

we had not cause?  Yes, you tell us you beleeve it, but it was

more weaknes of judgmente, then of hands.  Our weaknes herin

is great we confess, therfore we will bear this check patiently

amongst ye rest, till God send us wiser men.  But they which

tould you we spent so much time in discoursing & consulting,

&c., their harts can tell their toungs, they lye.  They cared

not, so they might salve their owne sores, how they wounded

others.  Indeed, it is our callamitie that we are (beyound ex-

pectation) yoked with some ill conditioned people, who will

never doe good, but corrupte and abuse others, &c.

      The rest of ye letter declared how they had sub-

scribed those conditions according to his desire, and

sente him ye former accounts very perticulerly; also

how ye ship was laden, and in what condition their

affairs stood; that ye coming of these [69] people

would bring famine upon them unavoydably, if they

had not supply in time (as Mr. Cushman could more

1621.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                133

fully informe him & ye rest of ye adventurers).  Also

that seeing he was now satisfied in all his demands ,

that offences would be forgoten, and he remember his

promise, &c.

     After ye departure of this ship, (which stayed not

above 14. days,) the Gover & his assistante haveing

disposed these late comers into severall families, as

yey best could, tooke an exacte accounte of all their

provissions in store, and proportioned ye same to ye

number of persons, and found that it would not hould

out above 6. months at halfe alowance, and hardly that.

And they could not well give less this winter time till

fish came in againe.  So they were presently put to

half alowance, one as well as an other, which begane

to be hard, but they bore it patiently under hope of


     Sone after this ships departure, ye great people of

ye Narigansets, in a braving maner, sente a messenger

unto them with a bundl of arrows tyed aboute with

a great sneak-skine; which their interpretours tould

them was a threatening & a chaleng.  Upon which

ye Govr, with ye advice of others, sente them a round

answere, that if they had rather have warre then peace,

they might begine when they would; they had done

them no wrong, neither did yey fear them, or should

they find them unprovided.  And by another messenger

sente ye sneake-skine back with bulits in it; but they

would not receive it, but sent it back againe.  But

134                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

these things I doe but mention, because they are more

at large allready put forth in printe, by Mr. Winslow,

at ye requeste of some freinds.  And it is like ye

reason was their owne ambition, who, (since ye death

of so many of ye Indeans,) thought to dominire &

lord it over ye rest, & conceived ye English would be a

barr in their way, and saw that Massasoyt took sheil-

ter allready under their wings.

     But this made them ye more carefully to looke to

them selves, so as they agreed to inclose their dwell-

ings with a good strong pale, and make flankers in

convenient places, with gates to shute, which were

every night locked, and a watch kept, and when neede

required ther was also warding in ye day time.  And

ye company was by ye Captaine and ye Govr  [70] ad-

vise, devided into 4. squadrons, and every one had

ther quarter apoynted them, unto which they were to

repaire upon any suddane alarme.  And if ther should

be any crie of fire, a company were appointed for a

gard, with muskets, whilst others quenchet ye same, to

prevent Indean treachery.  This was accomplished very

cherfully, and ye towne impayled round by ye begin-

ing of March, in which evry family had a prety garden

plote secured.  And herewith I shall end this year.

Only I shall remember one passage more, rather of

mirth then of waight.  One ye day called Chrismas-

day, ye Govr caled them out to worke, (as was used,)

but ye most of this new-company excused them selves

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.               135

and said it wente against their consciences to work on

yt day.  So ye Govr tould them that if they made it

mater of conscience, he would spare them till they

were better informed.  So he led-away ye rest and

left them; but when they came home at noone from

their worke, he found them in ye streete at play,

openly; some pitching ye barr, & some at stoole-ball,

and shuch like sports.  So he went to them, and tooke

away their implements, and tould them that was against

his conscience, that they should play & others worke.

If they made ye keeping of it mater of devotion, let

them kepe their houses, but ther should be no game-

ing or revelling in ye streets.  Since which time noth-

ing hath been atempted that way, at least openly.

Anno 1622.

     AT ye spring of ye year they had apointed ye Massa-

chusets to come againe and trade with them, and be-

gane now to prepare for that vioag about ye later end

of March.  But upon some rumors heard, Hobamak,

their Indean, tould them upon some jealocies he had,

he feared they were joyned wth ye Narighansets and

might betray them if they were not carefull. He inti-

mated also some jealocie of Squanto, by what he gath-

ered from some private whisperings betweene him and

other Indeans.  But [71] they resolved to proseede,

and sente out their shalop with 10. of their cheefe

men aboute ye begining of Aprill, and both Squanto

136                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

& Hobamake with them, in regarde of ye jelocie be-

tweene them.  But they had not bene gone longe, but

an Indean belonging to Squantos family came runing

in seeming great fear, and tould them that many

of ye Narihgansets, with Corbytant, and he thought

also Massasoyte, were coming against them; and he

gott away to tell them, not without danger.  And

being examined by ye Govr, he made as if they were

at hand, and would still be looking back, as if they

were at his heels.  At which the Govr caused them

to take armes & stand on their garde, and suppos-

ing ye boat to be still within hearing (by reason it

was calme) caused a warning peece or 2. to be shote

of, the which yey heard and came in.  But no Indeans

apeared; watch was kepte all night, but nothing was

seene.  Hobamak was confidente for Massasoyt, and

thought all was false; yet ye Govr caused him to send

his wife privatly, to see what she could observe (pre-

tening other occasions), but ther was nothing found,

but all was quiet.  After this they proseeded on their

vioge to ye Massachusets, and had good trade, and

returned in saftie, blessed be God.

     But by the former passages, and other things of

like nature, they begane to see yt Squanto sought his

owne ends, and plaid his owne game, by putting ye

Indeans in fear, and drawing gifts from them to en-

rich him selfe; making them beleeve he could stur up

warr against whom he would, & make peece for whom

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                137

he would.  Yea, he made them beleeve they kept ye

plague buried in ye ground, and could send it amongs

whom they would, which did much terrifie the Indeans,

and made them depend more on him, and seeke more

to him then to Massasoyte, which proucured him envie,

and had like to have cost him his life.  For after ye

discovery of his practises, Massasoyt sought it both pri-

vatly and openly; which caused him to stick close to

ye English, & never durst goe from them till he dyed.

They also made good use of ye emulation yt grue be-

tweene Hobamack and him, which made them cary more

squarely.  And ye Govr seemed to countenance ye one,

and ye Captaine ye other, by which they had better

intelligence, and made them both more diligente.

      [72]  Now in a maner their provissions were wholy

spent, and they looked hard for supply, but none came.

But about ye later end of May, they spied a boat at

sea, which at first they thought had beene some French-

man; but it proved a shalop which came from a ship

which Mr. Weston & an other had set out a fishing,

at a place called Damarins-cove, 40. leagues to ye

eastward of them, wher were yt year many more

ships come a fishing.  This boat brought 7. passengers

and some letters, but no vitails, nor any hope of any.

Some part of which I shall set downe.

    Mr. Carver, in my last leters by ye Fortune, in whom Mr.

Cushman wente, and who I hope is with you, for we daly

138                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

expecte ye shipe back againe.  She departed hence, ye begin-

ing of July, with 35. persons, though not over well provided

with necesaries, by reason of ye parsemonie of ye adventurers.

I have solisited them to send you a supply of men and provis-

sions before shee come.  They all answer they will doe great

maters, when they hear good news.  Nothing before; so faith-

full, constant, & carefull of your good, are your olde & honest

freinds, that if they hear not from you, they are like to send

you no supplie, &c.  I am now to relate ye occasion of send-

ing this ship, hoping if you give credite to my words, you will

have a more favourable opinion of it, then some hear, wherof

Pickering is one, who taxed me to mind my owne ends, which

is in part true, &c. Mr. Beachamp and my selfe bought this

litle ship, and have set her out, partly, if it may be, to uphold !

ye plantation, as well to doe others good as our selves; and

partly to gett up what we are formerly out; though we are

otherwise censured, &c.  This is ye occasion we have sent

this ship and these passengers, on our owne accounte; whom we

desire you will frendly entertaine & supply with shuch neces-

aries as you cane spare, and they wante, &c.  And among

other things we pray you lend or sell them some seed corne,

and if you have ye salt remaining of ye last year, that yu will

let them have it for their presente use, and we will either pay

you for it, or give you more when we have set our salt-pan to

worke, which we desire may be set up in one of ye litle ilands

in your bay, &c.  And because we intende, if God plase, [73]

 (and ye generallitie doe it not,) to send within a month another

shipe, who, having discharged her passengers, shal goe to Vir-

ginia, &c.  And it may be we shall send a small ship to abide

with you on ye coast, which I conceive may be a great help to

ye plantation.  To ye end our desire may be effected, which, I

assure my selfe, will be also for your good, we pray you give

them entertainmente in your houses ye time they shall be with

        * Adventures in the mannscript.    !I know not wch way.

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                139

you, that they may lose no time, but may presently goe in hand

to fell trees & cleave them, to ye end lading may be ready and

our ship stay not.

     Some of ye adventurers have sent you hearwith all some

directions for your furtherance in ye comone bussines, who

are like those St. James speaks of, yt bid their brother eat,

and warme him, but give him nothing; so they bid you make

salt, and uphold ye plantation, but send you no means wher-

withall to doe it, &c.  By ye next we purpose to send more

people on our owne accounte, and to take a patente; that if your

peopl should be as unhumane as some of ye adventurers, not

to admite us to dwell with them, which were extreme barba-

risme, and which will never enter into my head to thinke you

have any shuch Pickerings amongst you.  Yet to satisfie our

passengers I must of force doe it; and for some other reasons

not necessary to be writen, &c.  I find ye generall so backward,

and your freinds at Leyden so could, that I fear you must stand

on your leggs, and trust (as they say) to God and your selves.


your loving freind,

Jan: 12. 1621.                                                      THO: WESTON.

     Sundry other things I pass over, being tedious &


     All this was but could comfort to fill their hungrie

bellies, and a slender performance of his former late

promiss; and as litle did it either fill or warme them,

as those ye Apostle James spake of, by him before

mentioned.  And well might it make them remember

what ye psalmist saith, Psa. 118. 8. It is better to trust

 in the Lord, then to have confidence in man. And Psa.

146.  Put not you trust in prince  (much less in ye

140                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

marchants) nor in ye sane of man, for ther is no help

in them. v. 5.  Blesed is he that hath ye God of

Jacob for his help, whose hope is in ye Lord his God.

And as they were now fayled of sllply by him and

others in this their greatest neede and wants, which

was caused by him and ye rest, who put so great a

company of men upon them, as ye former company

were, without any food, and came at shuch a time as

they must live almost a whole year before any could

[74] be raised, excepte they had sente some; so, upon

ye pointe they never had any supply of vitales more

afterwards (but what the Lord gave them otherwise);

for all ye company sent at any time was allways too

short for those people yt came with it.

     Ther came allso by ye same ship other leters, but of

later date, one from Mr. Weston, an other from a parte

of ye adventurers, as foloweth.

     Mr, Carver, since my last, to ye end we might ye more readily

proceed to help ye generall, at a meeting of some of ye prin-

cipall adventurers, a proposition was put forth, & alowed by

all presente (save Pickering), to adventure each man ye third

parte of what he formerly had done.  And ther are some other

yt folow his example, and will adventure no furder.  In regard

wherof ye greater part of ye adventurers being willing to uphold

ye bussines, finding it no reason that those yt are willing should

uphold ye bussines of those that are unwilling, whose back-

wardnes doth discourage those that are forward, and hinder

other new-adventurers from coming in, we having well con-

sidered therof, have resolved, according to an article in ye

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                141

agreemente, (that it may be lawfull by a generall consente of

ye adventurers &; planters, upon just occasion, to breake of their

joynte stock,) to breake it of; and doe pray you to ratifie, and

confirme ye same on your parts.  Which being done, we shall

ye more willingly goe forward for ye upholding of you with

all things necesarie.  But in any case you must agree to ye

artickls, and send it by ye first under your hands & seals. So

I end

Your loving freind,


Jan: 17. 1621.

     Another leter was write from part of ye company

of ye adventurers to the same purpose, and subscribed

with 9. of their names, wherof Mr. Westons & Mr.

Beachamphs were tow.  Thes things seemed strang unto

them, seeing this unconstancie & shufling; it made

them to thinke ther was some misterie in ye matter.

And therfore ye Govr concealed these letters from ye

publick, only imparted them to some trustie freinds

for advice, who concluded with him, that this tended

to disband & scater them (in regard of their straits);

and if Mr. Weston & others, who seemed to rune in

a perticuler way, should come over with shiping so

provided as his letters did intimate, they most would

fall to him, to ye prejudice of them selves & ye rest

of the adventurers, their freinds; from whom as yet

they heard nothing.  And it was doubted whether he

had not sente [75] over shuch a company jn ye former

* Adventures in the mannsclipt.

142                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

ship, for shuch an end.  Yet they tooke compassion

of those 7. men which this ship, which fished to ye

eastward, had kept till planting time was over, and so

could set no corne; and allso wanting vitals, (for yey

turned them off wthout any, and indeed wanted for

them selves,) neither was their salt-pan come, so as

yey could not performe any of those things which Mr.

Weston had apointed, and might have starved if ye

plantation had not succoured them; who, in their

wants, gave them as good as any of their owne.

The ship wente to Virginia, wher they sould both

ship & fish, of which (it was conceived) Mr. Weston

had a very slender accounte.

    After this came another of his ships, and brought

letters dated ye 10. of Aprill, from Mr. Weston, as


     Mr. Bradford, these, &c.  The Fortune is arived, of whose

good news touching your estate & proceeings, I am very glad

to hear.  And how soever he was robed on ye way by ye French-

men, yet I hope your loss will not be great, for ye conceite of so

great a returne doth much animate ye adventurers, so yt I

hope some matter of importance will be done by them, &c.  As

for my selfe, I have sould my adventure & debts unto them,

so as I am quit* of you, & you of me, for that matter, &c.

Now though I have nothing to pretend as an adventurer

amongst you, yet I will advise you a litle for your good, if

you can apprehend it.  I perceive & know as well as another,

ye dispositions of your adventurers, whom ye hope of gaine hath

* See how his promiss is fulfild.

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                143

drawne on to this they have done; and yet I fear yt hope will

not draw them much furder.  Besids, most of them are against

ye sending of them of Leyden, fo'r whose cause this bussines

was first begune, and some of ye most religious (as Mr. Greene by

name) excepts against them.  So yt my advice is (you may

follow it if you please) that you forthwith break of your

joynte stock, which you have warente to doe, both in law &

conscience, for ye most parte of ye adventurers have given

way unto it by a former letter.  And ye means you have

ther, which I hope will be to some purpose by ye trade of this

spring, may, with ye help of some freinds hear, bear ye charge

of trasporting those of Leyden; and when they are with you

I make no question but by Gods help you will be able to sub-

sist of your selves.  But I shall leave you to your discretion.

      I desired diverce of ye adventurers, as Mr. Peirce, Mr. Greene,

& others, if they had any thing to send you, either vitails or

leters, to send them by these ships; and marvelling they sent

not so much as a letter, I asked our passengers what leters

they had, and with some dificultie one of them tould me he

had one, which was delivered him with [76] great charge of

secrecie; and for more securitie, to buy a paire of new-shoes,

& sow it betweene ye soles for fear of intercepting.  I, taking

ye leter, wondering what mistrie might be in it, broke it open,

and found this treacherous letter subscribed by ye hands of Mr.

Pickering & Mr. Greene.  Wich leter had it come to your hands

without auswer, might have caused ye hurt, if not ye ruine, of

us all.  For assuredly if you had followed their instructions,

and shewed us that unkindness which they advise you unto, to

hold us in distruste as enimise, &c., it might have been an occa-

sion to have set us togeather by ye eares, to ye distruction of us

all.  For I doe beleeve that in shuch a case, they knowing

what bussines hath been betweene us, not only my brother, but

others also, would have been violent, and heady against you,

&c.  I mente to have setled ye people I before and now send,

144                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

with or near you, as well for their as your more securitie and

defence, as help on all occasions.  But I find ye adventurers

so jealous & suspitious, that I have altered my resolution, &

given order to my brother & those with him, to doe as they

and him selfe shall find fitte.  Thus, &c.

Your loving freind,

Aprill 10.1621.                       THO: WESTON.

Some part of Mr Pickerings letter before mentioned.

To Mr. Bradford & Mr. Brewster, &c.

     My dear love remembred unto you all, &c.  The company

hath bought out Mr. Weston, and are very glad they are freed

of him, he being judged a man yt thought him selfe above ye

generall, and not expresing so much ye fear of God as was

meete in a man to whom shuch trust should have been reposed

in a matter of so great importance.  I am sparing to be so

plaine as indeed is clear against him; but a few words to ye


      Mr. Weston will not permitte leters to be sent in his ships,

nor any thing for your good or ours, of which ther is some

reason in respecte of him selfe, &c.  His brother Andrew,

whom he doth send as principall in one of these ships, is a

heady yong man, & violente, and set against you ther, & ye

company hear; ploting with Mr. Weston their owne ends, which

tend to your & our undooing in respecte of our estates ther,

and prevention of our good ends.  For by credible testimoney

we are informed his purpose is to come to your colonie, pre-

tending he comes for and from ye adventurers, and will seeke

to gett what you have in readynes [77] into his ships, as if

they came from ye company, & possessing all, will be so much

profite to him selfe.  And further to in forme them selves what

spetiall places or things you have discovered, to ye end that

they may supres & deprive you, &c.

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                145

The Lord, who is ye watchman of Israll & slepeth not, pre-

serve you & deliver you from unreasonable men.  I am sorie

that ther is cause to admonish you of these things concerning

this man; so I leave you to God, who bless and multiply you

into thousands, to the advancemente of ye glorious gospell of

our Lord Jesus.  Amen.  Fare well.

   Your loving freinds,



I pray conceale both ye writing & deliverie of this leter, but

make the best use of it. We hope to sete forth a ship our selves with in this month.

The heads of his answer.

    Mr. Bradford, this is ye leter yt I wrote unto you of, which

to answer in every perticuler is needles & tedious.  My owne

conscience & all our people can and I thinke will testifie, yt

my end in sending ye ship Sparrow was your good, &c.  Now

I will not deney but ther are many of our people rude fellows,

as these men terme them; yet I presume they will be governed

by such as I set over them.  And I hope not only to be able

to reclaime them from yt profanenes that may scandalise ye

vioage, but by degrees to draw them to God, &c.  I am

so farr from sending rude fellows to deprive you either by

fraude or violence of what is yours, as I have charged ye

Mr. of ye ship Sparrow, not only to leave with you 2000. of

bread, but also a good quantitie of fish,. &c.  But I will

leave it to you to consider what evill this leter would or

might have done, had it come to your hands & taken ye

effecte ye other desired.

     Now if you be of ye mind yt these men are, deale plainly

with us, & we will seeke our residence els-wher.  If you

*But ye [he] left not his own men a bite of bread.

146                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

are as freindly as we have thought you to be, give us ye

entertainment of freinds, and we will take nothing from you,

neither meat, drinke, nor lodging, but what we will, in one

kind or other, pay you for, &c.  I shall leave in ye coun-

trie a litle ship (if God send her safe thither) with mariners

& fisher-men to stay ther, who shall coast, & trad with ye

savages, & ye old plantation.  It may be we shall be as

helpfull to you, as you will be to us.  I thinke I shall see

you ye next spring; and so I comend you to ye protection

of God, who ever keep you.

Your loving freind,


     [78] Thus all ther hops in regard of Mr. Weston

were layed in ye dust, and all his promised helpe

turned into an empttie advice, which they apprehended

was nether lawfull nor profitable for them to follow.

And they were not only thus left destitute of help in

their extreme wants, haveing neither vitails, nor any

thing to trade with, but others prepared & ready to

glean up what ye cuntrie might have afforded for their

releefe.  As for those harsh censures & susspitions in-

timated in ye former and following leters, they desired

to judg as charitably and wisly of them as they could,

waighing them in ye ballance of love and reason; and

though they (in parte) came from godly & loveing

freinds, yet they conceived many things might arise

from over deepe jealocie and fear, togeather with un-

meete provocations, though they well saw Mr. Weston

pursued his owne ends, and was imbittered in spirite.

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                147

For after the receit of ye former leters, the Govr re-

ceived one from Mr. Cushman, who went home in ye

ship, and was allway intimate with Mr. Weston, (as

former passages declare), and it was much marveled

that nothing was heard from him, all this while.  But

it should seeme it was ye difficulty of sending, for

this leter was directed as ye leter of a wife to her

husband, who was here, and brought by him to ye

Govr.  It was as followeth.

   Beloved Sr:  I hartily salute you, with trust of your health,

and many thanks for your love.  By Gods providence we

got well home ye 17. of Feb.  Being robbed by ye French-

men by ye way, and carried by them into France, and were

kepte ther 15. days, and lost all yt we had that was worth

taking; but thanks be to God, we escaped with our lives

& ship.  I see not yt it worketh any discouragment hear.

I purpose by Gods grace to see you shortly, I hope in June

nexte, or before.  In ye mean space know these things, and

I pray you be advertised a litle.  Mr. Weston hath quite

broken of from our company, through some discontents yt

arose betwext him and some of our adventurers, & hath

sould all his adventurs, & hath now sent 3. smale ships for his

perticuler plantation.  The greatest wherof, being 100. tune,

Mr. Reynolds goeth mr. and he wth ye rest purposeth to

come him selfe; for what end I know not.

    The people which they cary are no men for us, wherfore

I pray you entertaine them not, neither exchainge man for

man with them, excepte it be some of your worst.  He hath

taken a patente for him selfe.  If they offerr to buy any

thing of you, let it be shuch as you can spare, and let

them give ye worth of it.  If they borrow any thing of you,

148                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

let them leave a good pawne, &c.  It is like he [78] will

plant to ye southward of ye Cape, for William Trevore hath

lavishly tould but what he knew or imagined of Capewack,

Mohiggen, & ye Narigansets.  I fear these people will hardly

deale so well with ye savages as they should.  I pray you

therfore signifie to Squanto, that they are a distincte body

from us, and we have nothing to doe with them, neither

must be blamed for their falts, much less can warrente their

fidelitie.  We are aboute to recover our losses in France.

Our freinds at Leyden are well, and will come to you as

many as can this time.  I hope all will turne to ye best,

wherfore I pray you be not discouraged, but gather up your

selfe to goe thorow these dificulties cherfully & with courage

in yt place wherin God hath sett you, untill ye day of re-

freshing come.  And ye Lord God of sea & land bring us

comfortably togeather againe, if it may stand with his glorie.

Yours,                  ROBART CUSHMAN.

    On ye other sid of ye leafe, in ye same leter, came

these few lines from Mr. John Peirce, in whose name

the patente was taken, and of whom more will follow,

to be spoken in its place.

      Worthy Sr: I desire you to take into consideration that

which is writen on ye other side, and not any way to

damnifie your owne collony, whos strength is but weaknes,

and may therby be more infeebled.  And for ye leters of

association, by ye next ship we send, I hope you shall re-

ceive satisfaction; in ye mean time whom you admite I will

approve.  But as for Mr. Weston's company, I thinke them

so base in condition (for ye most parte) as in all apearance

* The number is repeated in the Ms.

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                149

not fitt for an honest mans company.  I wish they prove

other wise.  My purpose is not to enlarge my selfe, but

cease in these few lins, and so rest

Your loving freind,


      All these things they pondred and well considered,

yet concluded to give his men frendly entertainmente;

partly in regard of Mr. Weston him selfe, considering

what he had been unto them, & done for them, & to

some, more espetially; and partly in compassion to ye

people, who were now come into a willdernes, (as

them selves were,) and were by ye ship to be pres-

ently put a shore, (for she was to cary other passen-

gers to Virginia, who lay at great charge,) and they

were alltogeather unacquainted & knew not what to

doe.  So as they had received his former company of

7. men, and vitailed them as their owne hitherto, so

they also received these (being aboute 60. lusty men),

and gave [79] housing for them selves and their

goods; and many being sicke, they had ye best means

ye place could aford them.  They stayed hear ye most

parte of ye somer till ye ship came back againe from

Virginia.  Then, by his direction, or those whom he

set over them, they removed into ye Massachusset

Bay, he having got a patente for some part ther, (by

light of ther former discovery in leters sent home).

Yet they left all ther sicke folke hear till they were

setled and housed.  But of ther victails they had not

150                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

any, though they were in great wante, nor any thing

els in recompence of any courtecie done them; neither

did they desire it, for they saw they were an unruly

company, and had no good govermente over them, and

by disorder would soone fall into wants if Mr. Wes-

ton came not ye sooner amongst them; and therfore,

to prevente all after occasion, would have nothing of


     Amids these streigths, and ye desertion of those

from whom they had hoped for supply, and when

famine begane now to pinch them sore, they not know-

ing what to doe, the Lord, (who never fails his,) pre-

sents them with an occasion, beyond all expectation.

This boat which came from ye eastward brought them

a letter from a stranger, of whose name they had

never heard before, being a captaine of a ship come

ther a fishing.  This leter was as followeth.  Being

thus inscribed.

To all his good freinds at Plimoth, these, &c.

     Freinds, cuntrimen, & neighbours: I salute you, and wish

you all health and hapines in ye Lord.  I make bould with

these few lines to trouble you, because unless I were un-

humane, I can doe no less.  Bad news doth spread it selfe

too farr; yet I will so farr informe you that my selfe, with

many good freinds in ye south-collonie of Virginia, have re-

ceived shuch a blow, that 400. persons large will not make

good our losses.  Therfore I doe intreat you (allthough not

knowing you) that ye old rule which I learned when I went

to schoole, may be sufficente.  That is, Hapie is he whom

1622.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                151

other mens harmes doth make to beware.  And now againe

and againe, wishing all those yt willingly would serve ye

Lord, all health and happines in this world, and everlasting

peace in ye world to come.  And so I rest,



    By this boat ye Govr returned a thankfull answer,

as was meete, and sent a boate of their owne with

them, which was piloted by them, in which Mr. Wins-

low was sente to procure what provissions he could

of ye ships, who was kindly received by ye foresaid

gentill-man, who not only spared what he [90 *] could,

but writ to others to doe ye like.  By which means

he gott some good quantitie and returned in saftie, by

which ye plantation had a duble benefite, first, a pres-

ent refreshing by ye food brought, and secondly, they

knew ye way to those parts for their benifite hear-

after.  But what was gott, & this small boat brought,

being devided among so many, came but to a litle,

yet by Gods blesing it upheld them till harvest.  It

arose but to a quarter of a pound of bread a day to

each person; and ye Govr caused it to be dayly given

them, otherwise, had it been in their owne custody,

they would have eate it up & then starved.  But thus,

with what els they could get, they made pretie shift!

till corne was ripe.

*Mr. Hunter writes:  "Here is an error in Bradford's pagination.  He

passes from 79 to 90.  No part of the manuscript is here lost." 79 is repeated

in the paging.

Continue on to Book Two / pp. 152 - 186

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