by William Bradford


Book Two / pp. 504 - 528

These were ye articles of agreemente in ye union and

confederation which they now first entered into; and in

1643.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                505

this their first meeting, held at Boston ye day & year

abovesaid, amongst other things they had this matter II

of great consequence to considere on: the Narigansets,

after ye subduing of ye Pequents, thought to have ruled

over all ye Indeans aboute them; but ye English, espe-

tially those of Conightecutt holding correspondencie &

frenship with Uncass, sachem of ye Monhigg Indeans

which lived nere them, (as ye Massachusets had done

with ye Narigansets,) and he had been faithfull to them

in ye Pequente warr, they were ingaged to supporte

him in his just liberties, and were contented yt such of

ye surviving Pequents as had submited to him should

remaine with him and quietly under his protection. 

This did much increase his power and augmente his

greatnes, which ye Narigansets could not indure to see.

But Myantinomo, their cheefe sachem, (an ambitious

& politick man,) sought privatly and by trearchery ,

(according to ye lndean maner) to make him away,

by hiring some to kill him.  Sometime they assayed to

poyson him; that not takeing, then in ye night time to

knock him on ye head in his house, or secretly to shoot

him, and such like attempts.  But none of these taking

effecte, he made open warr upon him (though it was

against ye covenants both betweene ye English & them,

as also betweene them selves, and a plaine breach of ye

same).  He came suddanly upon him with 900. or 1000.

men (never denouncing any warr before).  Ye others

power at yt presente was not above halfe so many;

506                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

but it pleased God to give Uncas ye victory, and he

slew many of his men, and wounded many more; but

ye cheefe of all was, he tooke Miantinomo prisoner.

And seeing he was a greate man, and ye Narigansets

a potente people & would seeke revenge, he would doe

nothing in ye case without ye advise of ye English;

so he (by ye help & direction of those of Conightecutt)

kept him prisoner till this meeting of ye comissioners. 

The comissioners weighed ye cause and passages, as

they were clearly represented & sufficently evidenced

betwixte Uncass and Myantinomo; and the things being

duly considered, the comissioners apparently saw yt

Uncass could not be safe whilst Miantynomo lived, but,

either by secrete trechery or open force, his life would

still be in danger.  Wherfore they thought he might

justly put such a false & bloud-thirstie enimie to death;

but in his owne jurisdiction, not in ye English plan-

tations.  And they advised, in ye maner of his death

all mercy and moderation should be showed, contrary

to ye practise of ye lndeans, who exercise torturs and

cruelty.  And, [261] Uncass having hitherto shewed

him selfe a freind to ye English, and in this craving

their advise, if the Narigansett Indeans or others shall

unjustly assaulte Uncass for this execution, upon notice

and request, ye English promise to assiste and protecte

him as farr as they may agaiste such violence.

     This was ye issue of this bussines.  The reasons and

passages hereof are more at large to be seene in ye acts

1644.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                507

& records of this meeting of ye comissioners.  And

Uncass follewd this advise, and accordingly executed

him, in a very faire maner, acording as they advised,

with due respecte to his honour & greatnes.  But what

followed on ye Narigansets parte will appear hear after.

Anno Dom:  1644.

     MR. EDWARD WINSLOW was chosen Govr this year.

     Many having left this place (as is before noted) by

reason of ye straightnes & barrennes of ye same, and

their finding of better accommodations elsewher, more

sutable to their ends & minds; and sundrie others

still upon every occasion desiring their dismissions,

the church begane seriously to thinke whether it were

not better joyntly to remove to some other place, then

to be thus weakened, and as it were insensibly dis-

solved.  Many meetings and much consultation was held

hearaboute, and diverse were mens minds and opinions.

Some were still for staying togeather in this place,

aledging men might hear live, if they would be con-

tente with their condition; and yt it was not for wante

or necessitie so much yt they removed, as for ye enrich-

ing of them selves.  Others were resolute upon removall,

and so signified yt hear yey could not stay; but if ye

church did not remove, they must; insomuch as many

were swayed, rather then ther should be a dissolution,

to condescend to a removall, if a fitt place could

be found, that might more conveniently and comforta-

508                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

blie receive ye whole, with such accession of others

as might come to them, for their better strength &

subsistence; and some such like cautions and limita-

tions.  So as, with ye afforesaide provissos, ye greater

parte consented to a removall to a place called Nawsett,

which had been superficially veiwed and ye good will

of ye purchassers (to whom it belonged) obtained, with

some addition thertoo from ye Courte.  But now they

begane to see their errour, that they had given away

already the best & most comodious places to others,

and now wanted them selves; for this place was about

50. myles from hence, and at an outside of ye countrie,

remote from all society; also, that it would prove so

straite, as it would not be competente to receive

ye whole body, much less be capable of any addition

or increase; so as (at least in a shorte time) they

should be worse ther then they are now hear. The

which, with sundery other like considerations and in-

conveniences, made them chaing their resolutions; but

such as were before resolved upon removall tooke advan-

tage of this agreemente, & wente on notwithstanding,

neither could ye rest hinder them, they haveing made

some begining.  And thus was this poore church left,

like an anciente mother, growne olde, and forsaken of

her children, (though not in their affections,) yett in

regarde of their bodily presence and personall help-

fullness.  Her anciente members being most of them

worne away by death; and these of later time being

1644.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                509

like children translated into other families, and she like

a widow left only to trust in God.  Thus she that had

made many rich became her selfe poore.

[262] handled, and pacified by ye comissioner

this year.

     Wheras, by a wise providence of God, tow of ye jurisdic-

tions in ye westerne parts, viz. Conightecutt & New-haven,

have beene latly exercised by sundrie insolencies & outrages

from ye Indeans; as, first, an Englishman, runing from his

mr. out of ye Massachusets, was murdered in ye woods, in or

nere ye limites of Conightecute jurisdiction; and aboute 6.

weeks after, upon discovery by an Indean, ye Indean saga-

more in these parts promised to deliver the murderer to ye

English, bound; and having accordingly brought him within

ye sight of Uncaway, by their joynte consente, as it is

informed, he was ther unbound, and left to shifte for him

selfe; wherupon 10. Englishmen forthwith coming to ye place,

being sente by Mr. Ludlow, at ye lndeans desire, to receive

ye murderer, who seeing him escaped, layed hold of 8. of ye

Indeans ther presente, amongst whom ther was a sagamore

or 2. and kept them in hold 2. days, till 4. sagamors ingaged

themselves within one month to deliver ye prisoner.  And

about a weeke after this agreemente, an Indean came pre-

sumtuously and with guile, in ye day time, and murtherously

assalted an English woman in her house at Stamford, and

by 3. wounds, supposed mortall, left her for dead, after he

had robbed ye house.  By which passages ye English were

provoked, & called to a due consideration of their owne

saftie; and ye Indeans generally in those parts arose in an

hostile maner, refused to come to ye English to carry

on treaties of peace, departed from their wigwames, left

their corne unweeded, and shewed them selves tumultuously

510                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

about some of ye English plantations, & shott of peeces

within hearing of ye towne; and some Indeans came to ye :

English & tould them ye Indeans would fall upon them.

So yt most of ye English thought it unsafe to travel in those

parts by land, and some of ye plantations were put upon

strong watchs and ward, night & day, & could not attend

their private occasions, and yet distrusted their owne strength

for their defence.  Wherupon Hartford & New-Haven were

sent unto for aide, and saw cause both to send into ye weaker

parts of their owne jurisdiction thus in danger, and New-

Haven, for conveniencie of situation, sente aide to Uncaway,

though belonging to Conightecutt.  Of all which passages

they presently acquainted ye comissioners in ye Bay, & had

ye allowance & approbation from ye Generall Courte ther,

with directions neither to hasten warr nor to bear such inso-

lencies too longe.  Which courses, though chargable to them

selves, yet through Gods blessing they hope fruite is, & will

be, sweete and wholsome to all ye collonies; the murderers

are since delivered to justice, the publick peace preserved for

ye presente, & probabillitie it may be better secured for ye


     Thus this mischeefe was prevented, and ye fear of

a warr hereby diverted.  But now an other broyle was

begune by ye Narigansets; though they unjustly had

made warr upon Uncass, (as is before declared,) and

had, ye winter before this, ernestly presed ye Gover

of ye Massachusets that they might still make warr

upon them to revenge ye death of their sagamore, wch,

being taken prisoner, was by them put to death, (as

before was noted,) pretending that they had first received

and accepted his ransome, and then put him to death.

1644.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                511

But ye Gover refused their presents, and tould them

yt it was them selves had done ye wronge, & broaken

ye conditions of peace; and he nor ye English neither

could nor would allow them to make any further warr

upon him, but if they did, must assiste him, & oppose

them; but if it did appeare, upon good proofe, that

he had received a ransome for his life, before he put

him to death, when ye comissioners mett, they should

have a fair hearing, and they would cause Uncass

to returne ye same.  But notwithstanding, at ye spring

of ye year they gathered a great power, and fell upon

Uncass, and slue sundrie of his men, and wounded;

more, and also had some loss them selves.  Uncass 

cald for aide from ye English; they tould him what

ye Narigansets objected, he deney the same; they tould

him it must come to triall, and if he was inocente, if

ye Narigansets would not desiste, they would aide &

assiste him.  So at this meeting they [263] sent both

to Uncass & ye Narrigansets, and required their saga-

mors to come or send to ye comissioners now mete

at Hartford, and they should have a faire & inpartiall

hearing in all their greevances, and would endeavor

yt all wrongs should be rectified wher they should be

found; and they promised that they should safly come

and returne without any danger or molestation; and.

sundry ye like things, as appears more at large in

ye messengers instructions.  Upon wch the Narigansets

sent one sagamore and some other deputies, with full

512                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

power to doe in ye case as should be meete. Uncass

came in person, accompanyed with some cheefe aboute

him.  After the agitation of ye bussines, ye issue was

this.  The comissioners declared to ye Narigansett depu-

ties as followeth.

     1.  That they did not find any proofe of any ransome

agreed on.

     2.  It appeared not yt any wampam had been paied as a

ransome, or any parte of a ransome, for Myantinomos life.

     3.  That if they had in any measure proved their charge

against Uncass, the comissioners would have required him

to have made answerable satisfaction.

      4.  That if hereafter they can make satisfing profe, ye Eng-

lish will consider ye same, & proceed accordingly.

      5.  The comissioners did require yt neither them selves nor

ye Nyanticks make any warr or injulious assaulte upon

Unquass or any of his company untill they make profe

of ye ransume charged, and yt due satisfaction be deneyed,

unless he first assaulte them.

      6.  That if they assaulte Uncass, the English are engaged

to assist him.

      Hearupon ye Narigansette sachim, advising with ye other

deputies, ingaged him selfe in the behalfe of ye Nariganset

& Nyanticks that no hostile acts should be comitted upon

Uncass, or any of his, untill after ye next planting of corne;

and yt after that, before they begine any warr, they will give

30. days wflrning to ye Gover of the Massachusets or Con-

ightecutt.  The comissioners approving of this offer, and

taking their ingagmente under their hands, required Uncass,

as he expected ye continuance of ye favour of the English,

to observe the same termes of peace with ye Narigansets

and theirs.

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                513

     These foregoing conclusions were subscribed by ye comis-

sioners, for ye severall jurisdictions, ye 19. of Sept: 1644.

EDWA: HOPKINS, Presidente.








      The forenamed Narigansets deputies did further promise, that

if, contrary to this agreemente, any of ye Nyantick Pequents

should make any assaulte upon Uncass, or any of his, they

would deliver them up to ye English, to be punished accord-

ing to their demerits; and that they would not use any means

to procure the Mowacks to come against Uncass during this


     These were their names subscribed with their marks.



[264] Anno Dom: 1645.

    THE comissioners this year were caled to meete to-

gither at Boston, before their ordinarie time; partly in

regard of some differances falen betweene ye French and

ye govermente of ye Massachusets, about their aiding

of Munseire Latore against Munsseire de Aulney, and

partly aboute ye Indeans, who had broaken ye former

agreements aboute the peace concluded ye last year.

This meeting was held at Boston, ye 28. of July.

514                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     Besids some underhand assualts made on both sids,

the Narigansets gathered a great power, and fell upon

Uncass, and slew many of his men, and wounded

more, by reason yt they farr exseeded him in number,

and had gott store of peeces, with which they did him

most hurte.  And as they did this withoute ye knowl-

edg and consente of ye English, (contrary to former

agree mente,) so they were resolved to prosecute ye same,

notwithstanding any thing ye English said or should doe

against them.  So, being incouraged by ther late vic-

torie, and promise of assistance from ye Mowaks, (being

a strong, warlike, and desperate people,) they had all-

ready devoured Uncass & his, in their hops; and surly

they had done it in deed, if the English had not timly

sett in for his aide.  For those of Conightecute sent

him 40. men, who were a garison to him, till ye comis-

sioners could meete and take further order.

     Being thus mett, they forthwith sente 3. messengers,

viz. Sargent John Davis, Benedicte Arnold, and Francis

Smith, with full & ample instructions, both to ye Nari-

gansets and Uncass; to require them yt they should

either come in person or send sufficiente men fully

instructed to deale in ye bussines; and if the) refused

or delayed, to let them know (according to former

agreements) yt the English are engaged to assiste

against these hostile invasions, and yt they have sente

their men to defend Uncass, and to know of ye Nari-

gansets whether they will stand to ye former peace,

1645.]           PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                   515

or they will assaulte ye English also, that they may

provid accordingly.

     But ye messengers returned, not only with a sleight-

ing, but a threatening answer from the Narigansets

(as will more appear hereafter).  Also they brought

a letter from Mr. Roger Williams, wherin he assures

them that ye warr would presenly breake forth, & ye

whole country would be all of a flame.  And yt the

sachems of ye Narigansets had concluded a newtrality

with ye English of Providence and those of Aquidnett

Iland.   Wherupon ye comissioners, considering ye great

danger  & provocations offered, and ye necessitie we

should  be put unto of making warr with ye Narigan-

setts, and being also carfull, in a matter of so great

waight & generall concernmente, to see ye way cleared,

and to give satisfaction to all ye colonies, did thinke

fitte to advise with such of ye magistrats & elders of

ye Massaechusets as were then at hand, and also with

some of ye cheefe millitary comanders ther; who being

assembled, it was then agreed, --

   First, yt our ingagmente bound us to aide &, defend

Uncass.   2.  That this ayde could not be intended only

to defend him & his forte, or habitation, but (according

to ye comone acceptation of such covenants, or ingag-

ments, considered with ye grounds or occasion therof)

so to ayde him as he might be preserved in his liberty

and estate.  3ly.  That this ayde [265] must be speedy,

least he might be swalowed up in ye mean time, and

516                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

so come to late.  41y.  The justice of this warr being

cleared to our selves and ye rest then presente, it was

thought meete yt the case should be stated, and ye

reasons & grounds of ye warr declared and published.

51y.  That a day of humilliation should be apoynted,

which was ye 5. day of ye weeke following.   61y.  It was

then allso agreed by ye comissioners that ye whole num~

ber of men to be raised in all ye colonies should be 300.

Wherof from ye Massachusets a 190.  Plimoth, 40.

Conightecute, 40.  New-Haven, 30.  And considering

yt Uncass was in present danger, 40. men of this num-

ber were forthwith sente from ye Massachusets for his

sucoure; and it was but neede, for ye other 40. from

Conightecutt had order to stay but a month, & their

time being out, they returned; and ye Narigansets, hear-

ing therof, tooke the advantage, and came suddanly

upon him, and gave him another blow, to his further

loss, and were ready to doe ye like againe; but these

40. men being arrived, they returned, and did nothing.

       The declaration which they sett forth I shall not

transcribe, it being very larg, and put forth in printe,

to which I referr those yt would see ye same, in which

all passages are layed open from ye first.  I shall only

note their prowd carriage, and answers to ye 3. mes-

sengers sent from ye comissioners.  They received them

with scorne & contempte, and tould them they resolved

to have no peace without Uncass his head; also they

gave them this further answer:  that it mattered not

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                517

who begane ye warr, they were resolved to follow it,

and that ye English should withdraw their garison from

Uncass, or they would procure ye Mowakes against

them; and withall gave them this threatening answer:

that they would lay ye English catle on heaps, as high

as their houses, and yt no English-man should sturr out

of his dore to pisse, but he should be kild.  And

wheras they required guids to pass throw their countrie,

to deliver their message to Uncass from ye comissioners,

they deneyed them, but at length (in way of scorne)

offered them an old Pequente woman.  Besids allso

they conceived them selves in danger, for whilst ye in-

terpretour was speakeing with them about ye answer

he should returne, 3. men came & stood behind him

with ther hatchets, according to their murderous maner;

but one of his fellows gave him notice of it, so they

broak of & came away; with sundry such like affrontes,

which made those Indeans they carryed with them to

rune away for fear, and leave them to goe home as

they could.

     Thus whilst ye comissioners in care of ye publick

peace sought to quench ye fire kindled amongst ye

Indeans, these children of strife breath out threatenings,

provocations, and warr against ye English them selves.

So that, unless they should dishonour & provoak God,

by violating a just ingagmente, and expose ye colonies to

contempte & danger from ye barbarians, they cannot but

exerciese force, when no other means will prevaile to

518                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

reduse ye Narigansets & their confederats to a more

just & sober temper.

     So as here upon they went on to hasten ye prep-

rations, according to ye former agreemente, and sent to

Plimoth to send forth their 40. men with all speed,

to lye at Seacunke, least any deanger should befalle

it, before ye rest were ready, it lying next ye enemie,

and ther to stay till ye Massachusetts should joyne with

them.  Allso Conigtecute & Newhaven forces were to

joyne togeather, and march with all speed, and ye

Indean confederats of those parts with them.  All which

was done accordingly; and the souldiers of this place

were at Seacunk, the place of their rendevouze, 8. or

10. days before ye rest were ready; they were well

armed all with snaphance peeces, and wente under

ye camand of Captain [266] Standish.  Those from

other places were led likwise by able comanders, * as

Captaine Mason for Conigtecute, &c.; and Majore

Gibons was made generall over ye whole, with such

comissions & instructions as was meete.

      Upon ye suden dispatch of these souldiears, (the

present necessitie requiring it,) the deputies of ye

Massachusetts Courte (being now assembled imediatly

after ye setting forth of their 40. men) made a ques-

tion whether it was legally done, without their comis-

sion.  It was answered, that howsoever it did properly

belong to ye authority of ye severall jurisdictions (after

* Comander in the MS.

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                519

ye warr was agreed upon by ye comissioners, & the

number of men) to provid ye men & means to carry

on ye warr; yet in this presente case, the proceeding

of ye comissioners and ye comission given was as suffi-

ciente as if it had been done by ye Generall Courte.

First, it was a case of such presente & urgente necessitie,

as could not stay ye calling of ye Courte or Counsell.  21y.

In ye Articles of Confederation, power is given to ye comis-

sioners to consult, order, & determine all affaires of warr,

&c.  And ye word determine comprehends all acts of author-

ity belonging therunto.

    31y.  The comissioners are ye judges of ye necessitie of the


    41y.  The Generall Courte have made their owne comis-

sioners their sole counsell for these affires.

    51y.  These counsels could not have had their due effecte

excepte they had power to proceede in this case, as they

have done; which were to make ye comissioners power, and

ye maine end of ye confederation, to be frustrate, and that

mearly for observing a ceremony.

     61y.  The comissioners haveing sole power to manage ye

warr for number of men, for time, place, &c., they only

know their owne counsells, & determinations, and therfore

none can grante comission to acte according to these but

them selves.

     All things being thus in readines, and some of ye

souldiers gone forth, and the rest ready to march,

the comissioners thought it meete before any hostile

acte was performed, to cause a presente to be re-

turned, which had been sente to ye Gover of the Mas-

sachusetts from ye Narigansett sachems, but not by

520                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

him received, but layed up to be accepted or refused

as they should carry them selves, and observe ye cove-

nants.  Therfore they violating the same, & standing

out thus to a warr, it was againe returned, by 2. mes-

sengers & an interpretour.  And further to let know

that their men already sent to Uncass (& other wher

sent forth) have hitherto had express order only to

stand upon his & their owne defence, and not to

attempte any invasion of ye Narigansetts country; and

yet if they may have due reperation for what is past,

and good securitie for ye future, it shall appear they

are as desirous of peace, and shall be as tender of ye

Narigansets blood as ever.  If therefore Pessecuss,

Innemo, with other sachemes, will (without further

delay) come along with you to Boston, the comis-

sioners doe promise & assure them, they shall have

free liberty to come, and retourne without molesta-

tion or any just greevance from ye English.  But

deputies will not now serve, nor may the prepara-

tions in hand be now stayed, or ye directions given

recalled, till ye forementioned sagamors come, and

some further order be taken.  But if they will have

nothing but warr, the English are providing, and will

proceede accordingly.

     Pessecouss, Mixano, & Witowash, 3. principall sa-

chems of ye Narigansett Indeans, and Awasequen, dep-

utie for ye Nyanticks, with a large traine of men,

within a few days after came to Boston.

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                521

      And to omitte all other circomstances and debats yt

past betweene them and the comissioners, they came

to this conclusion following.

     [267] 1.  It was agreed betwixte ye comissioners of ye

United Collonies, and ye fore mentioned sagamores, & Nian-

tick deputie, that ye said Narigansets & Niantick, sagamores

should pay or cause to be payed at Boston, to ye Massa-

chusets comissioners, ye full sume of 2000. fathome of good

white wampame, or a third parte of black wampampeage,

in 4. payments; namely, 500. fathome within 20. days,

500. fathome within 4. months, 500. fathome at or before

next planting time, and 500. fathome within 2. years next

after ye date of these presents; which 2000. fathome ye

comissioners accepte for satisfaction of former charges ex-


     2.  The foresaid sagamors & deputie (on ye behalfe of ye

Narigansett & Niantick Indeans) hereby promise & cove-

nante that they upon demand and profe satisfie & re-

store unto Uncass, ye Mohigan sagamore, all such cap-

tives, whether men, or women, or children, and all such

canowes, as they or any of their men have taken, or as

many of their owne canowes in ye roome of them, full as

good as they were, with full satisfaction for all such corne

as they or any of theire men have spoyled or destroyed, of

his or his mens, since last planting time; and ye English

comissioners hereby promise yt Uncass shall doe ye like.

      3.  Wheras ther are sundry differences & greevances be-

twixte Narigansett & Niantick Indeans, and Uncass & his

men, (which in Uncass his absence cannot now be detir-

mined,) it is hearby agreed yt Nariganset & Niantick saga-

mores either come them selves, or send their deputies to ye

next meeting of ye comissioners for ye collonies, either at

New-Haven in Sept 1646. or sooner (upon conveniente warn-

522                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

ing, if ye said comissioners doe meete sooner), fully instructed

to declare & make due proofe of their injuries, and to sub-

mite to ye judgmente of ye comissioners, in giving or receiv-

ing satisfaction; and ye said comissioners (not doubting but

Uncass will either come him selfe, or send his deputies,

in like maner furnished) promising to give a full hearing

to both parties with equall justice, without any partiall

respects, according to their allegations and profs.

     4.  The said Narigansett & Niantick sagamors& deputies

doe hearby promise & covenante to keep and maintaine a

firme & perpetuall peace, both with all ye English United

Colonies & their successors, and with Uncass, ye Monhegen

sachem, & his men; with Ossamequine, Pumham, Sokanoke,

Cutsharuakin, Shoanan, Passaconaway, and all other Indean

sagamors, and their companies, who are in freindship with

or subjecte to any of ye English; hearby ingaging them

selves, that they will not at any time hearafter disturbe ye

peace of ye cuntry, by any assaults, hostile attempts, inva-

sions, or other injuries, to any of ye Unnited Collonies, or

their successors; or to ye afforesaid Indeans; either in their

persons, buildings, catle, or goods, directly or indirectly; nor

will they confederate with any other against them; & if

they know of any Indeans or others yt conspire or intend

hurt against ye said English, or any Indeans subjecte to or in

freindship with them, they will without delay acquainte & give

notice therof to ye English cofiiissioners, or some of them.

     Or if any questions or differences shall at any time here-

after arise or grow betwext them & Uncass, or any Endeans

before mentioned, they will, according to former ingagments

(which they hearby confirme & ratifie) first acquainte ye

English, and crave their judgments & advice therin; and

will not attempte or begine any warr, or hostille invasion,

till they have liberty and alowance from ye comissioners of

ye United Collonies so to doe.

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                523

    5.  The said Narigansets & Niantick sagamores & depu-

ties doe hearby promise yt they will forthwth deliver & re-

store all such Indean fugitives, or captives which have at

any time fled from any of ye English, and are now living

or abiding amongst them, or give due satisfaction for them

to ye comissioners for ye Massachusets; and further, that

they will (without more delays) pay, or cause to be payed,

a yearly tribute, a month before harvest, every year after

this, at Boston, to ye English Colonies, for all such Pequents

as live amongst them, according to ye former treaty &

agreemente, made at Hartford, 1638. namly, one fathome

of white wampam for every Pequente man, & halfe a

fathume for each Pequente youth, and one hand length

for each mal-child.  And if Weequashcooke refuse to pay

this tlibute for any Pequents with him, the Narigansetts

sagamores promise to assiste ye English againt him.  And

they further covenante yt they will resigne & yeeld up the

whole Pequente cuntrie, and every parte of it, to ye Eng-

lish collonies, as due to them by conquest.

      6.  The said Narigansett & Niantick sagamores & deputie

doe hereby promise & covenante yt within 14. days they will

bring & deliver to ye Massachusetts comissioners on ye be-

halfe of ye collonies, [268] foure of their children, viz.

Pessecous his eldest son, the sone Tassaquanawite, brother

to Pessecouss, Awashawe his sone, and Ewangsos sone, a

Niantick, to be kepte (as hostages & pledges) by ye English,

till both ye forementioned 2000. fathome of wampam be payed

at ye times appoynted, and ye differences betweexte themselves

& Uncass be heard & ordered, and till these artickles be

under writen at Boston, by Jenemo & Wipetock.  And fur-

ther they hereby promise & covenante, yt if at any time

hearafter any of ye said children shall make escape, or be

conveyed away from ye English, before ye premisses be fully

accomplished, they will either bring back & deliver to ye

524                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

Massachusett comissioners ye same children, or, if they be not

to be founde, such & so many other children, to be chosen

by ye comissioners for ye United Collonies, or their assignes,

and yt within 20. days after demand, and in ye mean time,

untill ye said 4. children be delivered as hostages, ye Nari-

gansett & Niantick sagamors & deputy doe, freely & of their

owne accorde, leave with ye Massachusett comissioners, as

pledges for presente securitie, 4. Indeans, namely, Witowash,

Pumanise, Jawashoe, Waughwamino, who allso freely con-

sente, and offer them selves to stay as pledges, till ye said

children be brought & delivered as abovesaid.

     7.  The comissioners for ye United Collonies doe hereby

promise & agree that, at ye charge of ye United Collonies,

ye 4.  Indeans now left as pledges shall be provided for, and yt

the 4. children to be brought & delivered as hostages shall

be kepte & maintained at ye same charge; that they will

require Uncass & his men, with all other Indean sagamors

before named, to forbear all acts of hostilitie againste ye Nari-

gansetts and Niantick Indeans for ye future.  And further,

all ye promises being duly observed & kept by ye Narigansett

& Niantick Indians and their company, they will at ye end

of 2. years restore ye said children delivered as hostiages,

and retaine a firme peace with ye Narigansets & Nianticke

Indeans aud their successours.

      8.  It is fully agreed by & betwixte ye said parties, yt if

any hostile attempte be made while this treaty is in hand,

or before notice of this agreemente (to stay further prepara-

tions & directions) can be given, such attempts & ye conse-

quencts therof shall on neither parte be accounted a violation

of this treaty, nor a breach of ye peace hear made & con-


      9.  The Narigansets & Niantick sagamors & deputie hereby

agree & covenante to & with ye comissioners of ye United

Collonies, yt henceforth they will neither give, grante, sell,

or in any maner alienate, any parte of their countrie, nor

1645.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                525

any parcell of land therin, either to any of ye English or

others, without consente or allowance of ye comissioners.

     10.  Lastly, they promise that, if any Pequente or other be

found & discovered amongst them who hath in time of peace

murdered any of ye English, he or they shall be delivered to

just punishmente.

      In witness wherof ye parties above named have inter-

chaingablie subscribed these presents, the day & year above











MEEKESANO his mark

WITOWASH his mark

AUMSEQUEN his mark           the Niantick

ABDAS his mark

PUMMASH his mark


     This treaty and agreemente betwixte the comissioners of ye

United Collonies and ye sagamores and deputy of Narrigansets

and Niantick Indeans was made and concluded, Benedicte

Arnold being interpretour upon his oath; Sergante Callicate

& an Indean, his man, being presente, and Josias & Cut-

shamakin, tow Indeans aquainted with ye English language,

assisting therin; who opened & cleared the whole treaty, &

every article, to ye sagamores and deputie there presente.

     And thus was ye warr at this time stayed and pre-


526                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

[269] Anno Dom: 1646.

     ABOUT ye midle of May, this year, came in 3. ships

into this harbor, in warrlike order; they were found to

be men of warr.  The captains name was Crumwell,

who had taken sundrie prizes from ye Spaniards in ye

West Indies.  He had a comission from ye Earle of

Warwick.  He had abord his vessels aboute 80. lustie

men, (but very unruly,) who, after they came ashore,

did so distemper them selves with drinke as they be-

came like madd-men; and though some of them were

punished & imprisoned, yet could they hardly be re-

strained; yet in ye ende they became more moderate

& orderly.  They continued here aboute a month or

6. weeks, and then went to ye Massachusets; ill which

time they spente and scattered a great deale of money

among ye people, and yet more sine (I fear) then

money, notwithstanding all ye care & watchfullnes that

was used towards them, to prevente what might be.

      In which time one sadd accidente fell out.  A des-

perate fellow of ye company fell a quarling with some

of his company.  His captine comanded him to be quiet

& surcease his quarelling; but he would not, but

reviled his captaine with base language, & in ye end

halfe drew his rapier, & intended to rune at his captien;

but he closed with him, and wrasted his rapier from

him, and gave him a boxe on ye earr; but he would

not give over, but still assaulted his captaine.  Wher-

1646.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                527

upon he tooke ye same rapier: as it was in ye scaberd,

and gave him a blow with ye hilts; but it light on his

head, & ye smal end of ye bar of ye rapier hilts peirct

his scull, & he dyed a few days after.  But ye captaine

was cleared by a counsell of warr.  This fellow was

so desperate a quareller as ye captaine was faine many

times to chaine him under hatches from hurting his

fellows, as ye company did testifie; and this was his


     This Captaine Thomas Cromuell sett forth another

vioage to the Westindeas, from the Bay of the Massa-

chusets, well maned & victuled; and was out 3. years,

and tooke sundry prises, and returned rich unto the

Massachusets, and ther dyed the same somere, having

gott a fall from his horse, in which fall he fell on his

rapeir hilts, and so brused his body as he shortly after

dyed therof, with some other distempers, which brought

him into a feavor.  Some observed that ther might be

somthing of the hand of God herein; that as the fore-

named man dyed of ye blow he gave him with ye rapeir

hilts, so his owne death was occationed by a like means.

     This year Mr. Edward Winslow went into England,

upon this occation: some discontented persons under

ye govermente of the Massachusets sought to trouble

their peace, and disturbe, if not innovate, their gover-

mente, by laying many [270] scandals upon them;

and intended to prosecute against them in England, by

petitioning & complaining to the Parlemente.  Allso


Samuell Gorton & his company made complaints against

them; so as they made choyse of Mr. Winslow to be

their agente, to make their defence, and gave him

comission & instructions for that end; in which he so

carried him selfe as did well answer their ends, and

cleared them from any blame or dishonour, to the

shame of their adversaries.  But by reason of the great

alterations in the State, he was detained longer then

was expected; and afterwards fell into other imploy-

ments their, so as he hath now bene absente this

4. years, which hath been much to the weakning of

this govermente, without whose consente he tooke these

imployments upon him.

Anno 1647. And Anno 1648.

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