by William Bradford


Book Two / pp. 187 - 226

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                187

Anno Dom: 1624.

     THE time of new election of ther officers for this

year being come, and* ye number of their people in-

creased, and their troubls and occasions therwith, the

Govr desired them to chainge ye persons, as well as

renew ye election; and also to adde more Assistans

to ye Govr for help & counsell, and ye better carrying

on of affairs.  Showing that it was necessarie it should

be so.  If it was any honour or benefite, it was fitte

others should be made pertakers of it; if it was a

burthen, (as doubtles it was,) it was but equall others

should help to bear it; and yt this was ye end of

Anuall Elections.  The issue was, that as before ther

was but one Assistante, they now chose 5. giving the

Govr a duble voyce; and aft wards they increased them

to 7. which course hath continued to this day.

      They having with some truble & charge new-masted

and rigged their pinass, in ye begining of March they

sent her well vitaled to the eastward on fishing.  She

arrived safly at a place near Damarins cove, and was

there well harbored in a place wher ships used to

tide, ther being also some ships all ready arived out

of England.  But shortly after ther [109] arose such

a violent & extraordinarie storme, as ye seas broak

over such places in ye harbor as was never seene be-

fore, and drive her against great roks, which beat such

*And is repeated in the MS.

188                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

a hole in her bulke, as a horse and carte might have

gone in, and after drive her into deep-water, wher she

lay sunke. The mr. was drowned, 'the rest of ye men,

all save one, saved their Jives, with much a doe; all

her provision, salt, and what els was in her, was lost.

And here I must leave her to lye till afterward.

      Some of those that still remained hear on their per-

ticuler, begane privatly to nurish a faction, and being

privie to a strong faction that was among ye adventur-

ers in England, on whom sundry of them did depend,

by their private whispering they drew some of the

weaker sorte of ye company to their side, and so filld

them with discontente, as nothing would satisfie them

excepte they might be suffered to be in their perticuler

allso; and made great offers, so they might be freed

from ye generall.  The Govr consulting with ye ablest

of ye generall body what was best to be done hear

in, it was resolved to permitte them so to doe, upon

equall conditions.  The conditions were the same in

effect with ye former before related.  Only some more

added, as that they should be bound here to remaine

till ye generall partnership was ended.  And also that

they should pay into ye store, ye on halfe of all such

goods and comodities as they should any waise raise

above their food, in consideration of what charg had

been layed out for them, with some such like things.

This liberty granted, soone stopt this gape, for ther

was but a few that undertooke this course when it

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                189

came too; and they were as sone weary of it.  For

the other had perswaded them, & Mr. Weston to-

geather, that ther would never come more supply to

ye general body; but ye perticulers had such freinds

as would carryall, and doe for them I know not


     Shortly after, Mr. Winslow came over, and brought

a prety good supply, and the ship came on fishing, a

thing fatall to this plantation.  He brought 3. heifers

& a bull, the first begining of any catle of that kind

in ye land, with some cloathing & other necessaries, as

will further appear; but withall ye reporte of a strong

faction amongst the adventurers * against them, and

espetially against ye coming of ye rest from Leyden,

and with what difficulty this supply was procured, and

how, by their strong & long opposision, bussines was

so retarded as not only they were now falne too late

for ye fishing season, but the best men were taken up

of ye fishermen in ye west countrie, and he was forct

to take such a mr. & company for that imployment as

he could procure upon ye present.  Some letters from

them shall beter declare these things, being as fol-


     [110] Most worthy & loving freinds, your kind & loving

leters I have received, and render you many thanks, &c. It

hath plased God to stirre up ye harts of our adventurers *

*Adventures in the manuscript.

190                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

to raise a new stock for ye seting forth of this shipe, caled

ye Charitie, with men & necessaries, both for ye plantation

and ye fishing, though accomplished with very great diffi-

culty; in regard we have some amongst us which undoubt-

edly airne more at their owne private ends, and ye thwarting

& opposing of some hear, and other worthy instruments,* of

Gods glory elswher, then at ye generall good and further-

ance of this noble & laudable action.  Yet againe we have

many other, and I hope ye greatest parte, very honest Chris-

tian men, which I am perswaded their ends and intents are

wholy for ye glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, in ye propaga-

tion of his gospell, and hope of gaining those poore salvages

to ye knowledg of God.  But, as we have a proverbe, One

scabed sheep may marr a whole flock, so these malecontented

persons, & turbulente spirits, doe what in them lyeth to

withdraw mens harts from you and your freinds, yea, even

from ye generall bussines; and yet under show and pretence

of godlynes and furtherance of ye plantation.  Wheras the

quite contrary doth plainly appeare; as some of ye honester

harted men (though of late of their faction) did make manifest

at our late meeting.  But what should I trouble you or my

selfe with these restles opposers of all goodnes, and I doubte

will be continuall disturbers of our frendly meetings & love.

On Thurs-day ye 8. of Jan: we had a meeting aboute the

artickls betweene you & us; wher they would rejecte that,

which we in our late leters prest you to grante, (an addition

to ye time of our joynt stock).  And their reason which

they would make known to us was, it trobled their con-

science to exacte longer time of you then was agreed upon

at ye first.  But that night they were so followed and crost

of their perverse courses, as they were even wearied, and

offered to sell their adventurs; and some were willing to buy.

But I, doubting they would raise more scandale and false

*He means Mr. Robinson.

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                191

reports, and so diverse waise doe us more hurt, by going of

in such a furie, then they could or can by continuing adven-

turers amongst us, would not suffer them.  But on ye 12. of

Jan: we had another meting, but in the interime diverse of

us had talked with most of them privatly, and had great

combats & reasoning, pro & con.  But at night when we

mete to read ye generall letter, we had ye loveingest and

frendlyest meeting that ever I knew * and our greatest ene-

mise offered to lend us 501i.  So I sent for a potle of wine,

(I would you could ! doe ye like,) which we dranke freindly

together.  Thus God can turne ye harts of men when it

pleaseth him, &c.  Thus loving freinds, I hartily salute you

all in ye Lord, hoping ever to rest,

Yours to my power,

Jan: 25.1623.                                              JAMES SHERLEY.

[111] Another leter.

      Beloved Sr., &c. We have now sent you, we hope, men

& means, to setle these 3. things, viz. fishing, salt making,

and boat making; if you can bring them to pass to some

perfection, your wants may be supplyed.  I pray you bend

you selfe what you can to setle these bussinesses.  Let ye

ship be fraught away as soone as you can, and sent to Bil-

bow.  You must send some discreete man for factore, whom,

once more, you must also authorise to confirme ye conditions.

If Mr. Winslow could be spared, I could wish he came

    * But this lasted not long, they had now provided Lyford & others to send


     ! It is worthy to be observed, how ye Lord doth chaing times & things;

for what is now more plentifull then wine? and that of ye best, coming from

Malago, ye Cannaries, and other places, sundry ships lading in a year.  So

as ther is now more cause to complaine of ye excess and ye abuse of wine

(through mens corruption) even to drunkennes, then of any defecte or wante

of ye same.  Witnes this year 1646.  The good Lord lay not ye sins & un-

thankfullnes of men to their charge in this perticuler.

192                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

againe.  This ship carpenter is thought to be the fittest man

for you in the land, and will no doubte doe you much good.

Let him have an absolute comand over his servants &

such a& you put to him.  Let him build you 2. catches, a

lighter, and some 6. or 7. shalops, as Boone as you can.

The salt-man is a skillfull & industlious man, put some to

him, that may quickly apprehende ye misterie of it.  The

preacher we have sent is (we hope) an honest plaine man,

though none of ye most eminente and rare.  Aboute chusing

him into office use your owne liberty & discretion; he knows

he is no officer amongst you, though perhaps custome &

universalitie may make him forget him selfe.  Mr. Winslow

& my selfe gave way to his going, to give contente to some

hear, and we see no hurt in it, but only his great charge of


     We have tooke a patente for Cap Anne, &c.  I am sory

ther is no more discretion used by some in their leters

hither.*  Some say you are starved in body & soule; others,

yt you eate piggs & doggs, that dye alone; others, that ye

things hear spoaken of, ye goodnes of ye cuntry, are gross

and palpable lyes; that ther is scarce a foule to be seene,

or a fish to be taken, and many such like.  I would such

discontented men were hear againe, for it is a miserie when

ye whole state of a plantation shall be thus exposed to ye

passionate humors of some discontented men.  And for my

selfe I shall hinder for hearafter some yt would goe, and

have not better composed their affections; mean space it is

all our crosses, and we must bear them.

      I am sorie we have not sent you more and other things,

but in truth we have rune into so much charge, to victaile

ye ship, provide salte & other fishing implements, &c. as we

could not provid other comfortable things, as buter, suger,

&c.  I hope the returne of this ship, and the James, will

* This was John Oldome & his like

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                193

put us in cash againe.  The Lord make you full of courage

in this troublesome bussines, which now must be stuck unto,

till God give us rest from our labours.  Fare well in all

harty affection.

Your assured freind,

Jan: 24. 1623.                                                                R. C.

     With ye former letter write by Mr. Sherley, there

were sente sundrie objections concerning which he thus

writeth.  "These are the cheefe objections which they

[112] that are now returned make against you and

the countrie.  I pray you consider them, and answer

them by the first conveniencie."  These objections were

made by some of those that came over on their pertic-

uler and were returned home, as is before mentioned,

and were of ye same suite with those yt this other

letter mentions.

     I shall here set them downe, with ye answers then

made unto them, and sent over at ye returne of this

ship; which did so confound ye objecters, as some

confessed their falte, and others deneyed what they

had said, and eate their words, & some others of them

have since come over againe and heere lived to con-

vince them selves sufficiently, both in their owne &

other mens judgments.

     1. obj. was diversitie aboute Religion.  Ans: We

know no such matter, for here was never any con-

troversie or opposition, either publicke or private, (to

our knowledg,) since we came.

194                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     2. ob:  Neglecte of familie duties, one ye Lords day.

     Ans.  We allow no such thing, but blame it in our

selves & others; and they that thus reporte it, should

have shewed their Christian love the more if they had

in love tould ye offenders of it, rather then thus to

reproach them behind their baks.  But (to say no

more) we wish them selves had given better example.

     3. ob:  Wante of both the sacrements.

     Ans. The more is our greefe, that our pastor is

kept from us, by whom we might injoye them; for

we used to have the Lords Supper every Saboth, and

baptisme as often as ther was occasion of children to


     4. ob:  Children not catechised nor taught to read.

     Ans:  Neither is true; for diverse take pains with

their owne as they can; indeede, we have no comone

schoole for want of a fitt person, or hithertoo means

to maintaine one; though we desire now to begine.

     5. ob:  Many of ye perticuler members of ye planta-

tion will not work for ye generall.

     Ans:  This allso is not wholy true; for though some

doe it not willingly, & other not honestly, yet all doe

it; and he that doth worst gets his owne foode &

something besids.  But we will not excuse them, but

labour to reforme them ye best we cane, or else to

quitte ye plantation of them.

     6. ob:  The water is not wholsome.

     Ans:  If they mean, not so wholsome as ye good

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                195

beere and wine in London, (which they so dearly

love,) we will not dispute with them; but els, for

water, it is as good as any in ye world, (for ought

we knowe,) and it is wholsome enough to us that can

be contente therwith.

     7. ob:  The ground is barren and doth bear no


     [113] Ans:  It is hear (as in all places) some better

& some worse; and if they well consider their words,

in England they shall not find such grasse in them, as

in their feelds & meadows. The catle find grasse, for

they are as fatt as need be; we wish we had but one

for every hundred that hear is grase to keep.  Indeed,

this objection, as some other, are ridiculous to all here

which see and know ye contrary.

      8. ob:  The fish will not take salt to keepe sweete.

     Ans:  This is as true as that which was written,

that ther is scarce a fouIe to be seene or a fish to

be taken.  Things likly to be true in a cuntrie wher

so many sayle of ships come yearly a fishing; they

might as well say, there can no aile or beere in Lon-

don be kept from sowering.

      9. ob:  Many of them are theevish and steale on

from an other.

     Ans:  Would London had been free from that crime,

then we should not have been trobled with these here;

it is well knowne sundrie have smarted well for it,

and so are ye rest like to doe, if they be taken.

196                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

      10. ob:  The countrie is anoyed with foxes and


     Ans:  So are many other good cuntries too; but

poyson, traps, and other such means will help to

destroy them.

      11. ob:  The Dutch are planted nere Hudsons Bay,

and are likely to overthrow the trade.

     Ans:  They will come and plante in these parts,

also, if we and others doe not, but goe home and

leave it to them.  We rather commend them, then

condemne them for it.

     12. ob:  The people are much alloyed with mus-


     Ans:  They are too delicate and unfitte to begine

new-plantations and collonies, that cannot enduer the

biting of a muskeeto; we would wish such to keepe

at home till at least they be muskeeto proofe.  Yet

this place is as free as any, and experience teacheth

that ye more ye land is tild, and ye woods cut downe,

the fewer ther will be, and in the end scarse any

at all.

    Having thus dispatcht these things, that I may

handle things togeather, I shall here inserte 2. other

letters from Mr. Robinson their pastor; the one. to ye

Govr, ye other to Mr. Brewster their Elder, which will

give much light to ye former things, and express the

tender love & care of a true pastor over them.

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                197

His leter to ye Govr.

    My loving & much beloved freind, whom God hath

hithertoo preserved, preserve and keepe you still to his

glorie, and ye good of many; that his blessing may make

your godly and wise endeavours answerable to ye valuation

which they ther have, & set upon ye same.  Of your love

too and care for us here, we never doubted; so are we glad

to take knowledg of it in that fullnes we doe.  Our love &

care to and for you, is mutuall, though our hopes of com-

ing [114] unto you be small, and weaker then ever.  But

of this at large in Mr. Brewsters letter, with whom you, and

he with you, mutualy, I know, comunicate your letters, as

I desire you may doe these, &c.

     Concerning ye killing of those poor Indeans, of which we

heard at first by reporte, and since by more certaine rela-

tion, oh! how happy a thing had it been, if you had con-

verted some, before you had killed any; besids, wher bloud

is onc begune to be shed, it is seldome stanched of a long

time after.  You will say they deserved it.  I grant it; but

upon what provocations and invitments by those heathenish

Christians? *  Besids, you, being no magistrats over them,

were to consider, not what they deserved, but what you

were by necessitie constrained to inflicte.  Necessitie of this,

espetially of killing so many, (and many more, it seems,

they would, if they could,) I see not.  Methinks on or tow

principals should have been full enough, according to that

approved rule,  The punishmente to a few, and ye fear to

many.  Upon this occasion let me be bould to exhorte you

seriouly to consider of ye dispossition of your Captaine, whom

I love, and am perswaded ye Lord in great mercie and for

much good hath sent you him, if you use him aright. He

is a man humble and meek amongst you, and towards all

                             *Mr. Westons men.

198                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

in ordinarie course.  But now if this be meerly from an

humane spirite, ther is cause to fear that by occasion,

espetially of provocation, ther may be wanting yt tendernes

of ye life of man (made after Gods image) which is meete.

It is also a thing more glorious in mens eyes, then pleas-

ing in Gods, or conveniente for Christians, to be a terrour

to poore barbarous people; and indeed I am afraid least, by

these occasions, others should be drawne to affecte a kind of

rufling course in the world.  I doubt not but you will take

in good part these things which I write, and as ther is

cause make use of them.  It were to us more comfortable

and convenient, that we comunicated our mutuall helps in

presence, but seeing that canot be done, we shall always

long after you, and love you, and waite Gods apoynted

time.  The adventurers it seems have neither money nor

any great mind of us, for ye most parte.  They deney it to

be any part of ye covenants betwixte us, that they should

trasporte us, neither doe I looke for any further help from

them, till means come from you.  We hear are strangers in

effecte to ye whole course, and so both we and you (save as

your owne wisdoms and worths have intressed you further)

of principals intended in this bussines, are scarce accessa-

ries, &c.  My wife, with me, resalute you & yours.  Unto

him who is ye same to his in all places, and nere to them

which are farr from one an other, I comend you and all

with you, resting,

Yours truly loving,


Leyden, Des: 19. 1623.

His to Mr. Brewster.

    Loving and dear freind and brother:  That which I most

desired of God in regard of you, namly, ye continuance of

your life and health, and the safe coming of these sent unto

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                199

you, that I most gladly hear of, and praise God for the

same.  And I hope Mrs. Brewsters weake and decayed state

of body will have some reparing by the coming of her

daughters, and the provissions in this and former ships, I

hear is made for you; which maks us with more patience

bear our languishing state, and ye deferring of our desired

trasportation; wch I call desired, rather than hoped for,

whatsoever you are borne in hand by any others.  For first,

ther is no hope at all, that I know, or can conceive of, of

any new stock to be raised for that end; so that all must

depend [115] upon returns from you, in which are so many

uncertainties, as that nothing with any certaintie can thence

be concluded.  Besids, howsoever for ye presente the adven-

turers aledg nothing but want of money, which is an in-

vincible difculty, yet if that be taken away by you, others

without doubte will be found.  For the beter clearing of this,

we must dispose ye adventurers into 3. parts; and of them

some 5. or 6. (as I conceive) are absolutly bent for us,

above any others.  Other 5. or 6. are our bitter professed

adversaries.  The rest, being the body, I conceive to be

honestly minded, & loveingly also towards us; yet such as

have others (namly ye forward preachers) nerer unto them,

then us, and whose course so farr as ther is any differance,

they would rather advance then ours.  Now what a hanck

these men have over ye professors, you know.  And I per-

swade my selfe, that for me, they of all others are unwilling

I should be transported, espetially such of them as have an

eye that way them selves; as thinking if I come ther, ther

market will be mard in many regards.  And for these ad-

versalies, if they have but halfe ye witte to their malice, they

will stope my course when they see it intended, for which

this delaying serveth them very opportunly.  And as one

restie jade can hinder, by hanging back, more then two or

3. can (or will at least, if they be not very free) draw for-

200                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

ward, so will it be in this case.  A notable* experimente of

this, they gave in your messengers presence, constraining ye

company to promise that none of the money now gathered

should be expended or imployed to ye help of any of us

towards you.  Now touching ye question propounded by you,

I judg it not lawfull for you, being a ruling Elder, as Rom.

12. 7. 8. & 1. Tim. 5. 17. opposed to the Elders that teach

& exhorte and labore in ye word and doctrine, to which ye

sacrements are anexed, to administer them, nor convenient

if it were lawfull.  Whether any larned man will come unto

you or not, I know not; if any doe, you must Consiliu

capere in arena.  Be you most hartily saluted, & your wife

with you, both from me & mine.  Your God & ours, and

ye God of all his, bring us together if it be his will, and keep

us in the mean while, and allways to his glory, and make us

servis able to his majestie, and faithfull to the end.  Amen.

      Your very loving brother,


Leyden, Des: 20. 1623.

     These things premised, I shall now prosecute ye pro-

ceilings and afairs here.  And before I come to other

things I must speak a word of their planting this

year; they having found ye benifite of their last

years harvest, and setting corne for their particuler,

having therby with a great deale of patience over-

come hunger & famine.  Which maks me remember

a saing of Senecas, Epis. 123. That a great parte of

libertie is a well governed belly, and to be patiente in

all wants.  They begane now highly to prise corne as

*Notabe in MS.

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                201

more pretious then silver, and those that had some to

spare begane to trade one with another for smale

things, by ye quarte, potle, & peck, &c.; for money

they had none, and if any had, corne was prefered

before it.  That they might therfore encrease their

tillage to better advantage, they made suite [116] to

the Govr to have some portion of land given them

for continuance, and not by yearly lotte, for by that

means, that which ye more industrious had brought

into good culture (by much pains) one year, came to

leave it ye nexte, and often another might injoye it;

so as the dressing of their lands were the more

sleighted over, & to lese profite.  Which being well

considered, their request was granted.  And to every

person was given only one acrre of land, to them &

theirs, as nere ye towne as might be, and they had no

more till ye 7. years were expired.  The reason was,

that they might be kept close together both for more

saftie and defence, and ye better improvement of ye

generall imployments.  Which condition of theirs did

make me often thinke, of what I had read in Plinie *

of ye Romans first beginings in Romulus time.  How

every man contented him selfe with 2. Acres of land,

and had no more assigned them.  And chap. 3.  It

was thought a great reward, to receive at ye hands of

ye people of Rome a pinte of corne.  And long after,

the greatest presente given to a Captaine yt had gotte a

*Plin: lib: 18. chap. 2.

202                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

victory over their enemise, was as much ground as

they could till in one day.  And he was not counted

a good, but a dangerous man, that would not contente

him selfe with 7.  Acres of land.  As also how they

did pound their corne in morters, as these people were

forcte to doe many years before they could get a


    The ship which brought this supply, was speedily

discharged, and with her mr. & company sente to

Cap-Anne (of which place they had gott a patente, as

before is shewed) on fishing, and because ye season was

so farr spente some of ye planters were sent to help

to build their stage, to their owne hinderance.  But

partly by ye latenes of ye year, and more espetialy by

ye basnes of ye mr., one Baker, they made a poore

viage of it.  He proved a very drunken beast, and

did nothing (in a maner) but drink, & gusle, and

consume away ye time & his victails; and most of

his company followed his example; and though Mr.

William Peirce was to over see the busines, & to

be mr. of ye ship home, yet he could doe no good

amongst them, so as ye loss was great, and would

have bene more to them, but that they kept one a

trading ther, which in those times got some store of

skins, which was some help unto them.

     The ship-carpenter that was sent them, was an

honest and very industrious man, and followed his

labour very dilligently, and made all that were im-

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                203

ployed with him doe ye like; he quickly builte them

2. very good & strong shalops (which after did them

greate service), and a great and strong lighter, and

had hewne timber for 2. catches; but that was lost,

for he fell into a feaver in ye hote season of ye year,

and though he had the best means ye place could aforde,

yet he dyed; of whom they had a very [117] great

loss, and were very sorie for his death.  But he whom

they sent to make salte was an ignorante, foolish, self-

willd fellow; he bore them in hand he could doe great

matters in making salt-works, so he was sente to seeke

out fitte ground for his purpose; and after some serch

he tould ye Govr that he had found a sufficente place,

with a good botome to hold water, and otherwise very

conveniente, which he doubted not but in a short time

to bring to good perfection, and to yeeld them great

profite; but he must have 8. or ten men to be con-

stantly imployed.  He was wisht to be sure that ye

ground was good, and other things answerable, and

yt he could bring it to perfection; otherwise he would

bring upon them a great charge by imploying him

selfe and so many men.  But he was, after some triall,

so confidente, as he caused them to send carpenters to

rear a great frame for a large house, to receive ye salte

& such other uses.  But in ye end all proved vaine.

Then he layed fault of ye ground, in which he was

deceived; but if he might have the lighter to cary

clay, he was sure then he could doe it.  Now though

204                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

ye Govr & some other foresaw that this would come to

litle, yet they had so many malignant spirits amongst

them, that would have laid it upon them, in their let-

ters of complainte to ye adventurers, as to be their

falte yt would not suffer him to goe on to bring his

work to perfection; for as he by his bould confidence

& large promises deceived them in England that sente

him, so he had wound him selfe in to these mens high

esteeme hear, so as they were faine to let him goe on

till all men saw his vanity.  For he could not doe any

thing but boyle salt in pans, & yet would make them

yt were joynd with him beleeve ther was so grat a

misterie in it as was not easie to be attained, and

made them doe many unnecessary things to blind their

eys, till they discerned his sutltie.  The next yere he

was sente to Cap-Anne, and ye pans were set up ther

wher the fishing was; but before somer was out, he

burte the house, and the fire was so vehemente as it

spoyld the pans, at least some of them, and this was

the end of that chargable bussines.

     The 3d. eminente person (which ye letters before men-

tion) was ye minister which they sent over, by name

Mr. John Lyford, of whom & whose doing I must be

more large, though I shall abridg things as much as I

can.  When this man first came a shore, he saluted

them with that reverence & humilitie as is seldome to

be seen, and indeed made them ashamed, he so bowed

and cringed unto them, and would have kissed their

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                205

hands if they would have [118] suffered him; * yea,

he wept & shed many tears, blessing God that had

brought him to see their faces; and admiring ye things

they had done in their wants, &c. as if he had been

made all of love, and ye humblest person in ye world.

And all ye while (if we may judg by his after cariags)

he was but like him mentioned in Psa: 10. 10.  That

croucheth & boweth, that heaps of poore may fall by

his might.  Or like to that dissembling Ishmaell, ! who,

when he had slaine Gedelia, went out weeping and

mette them yt were coming to offer incence in ye house

of ye Lord; saing, Come to Gedelia, when he ment to

slay them.  They gave him ye best entertainment yey

could, (in all simplisitie,) and a larger alowans of

food out of ye store then any other had, and as the

Govr had used in all waightie affairs to consulte with

their Elder, Mr. Brewster, (togeither with his assist-

ants,) so now he caled Mr. Liford also to counsell with

them in their waightiest bussineses.  Ater some short

time he desired to joyne himselfe a member to ye

church hear, and was accordingly received.  He made

a large confession of his faith, and an acknowledge-

mente of his former disorderly walking, and his being

intangled with many corruptions, which had been

a burthen to his conscience, and blessed God for this

opportunitie of freedom & libertie to injoye ye ordi-

nances of God in puritie among his people, with many

*Of wch were many witneses.         ! Jer. 41. 6.

206                      HISTORY OF                        [Book II.

more such like expressions.  I must hear speake a word

also of Mr. John Oldom, who was a copartner with

him in his after courses.  He had bene a cheefe sticler

in ye former faction among ye perticulers, and an

intelligencer to those in England.  But now, since the

coming of this ship and he saw ye supply that came,

he tooke occasion to open his minde to some of ye

cheefe amongst them heere, and confessed he had done

them wrong both by word & deed, & writing into

England; but he now saw the eminente hand of God

to be with them, and his blesing upon them, which

made his hart smite him, neither should those in Eng-

land ever use him as an instrumente any longer against

them in any thing; he also desired former things

might be forgotten, and that they would looke upon

him as one that desired to close with them in all

things, with such like expressions.  Now whether this

was in hipocrisie, or out of some sudden pange of

conviction (which I rather thinke), God only knows.

Upon it they shew all readynes to imbrace his love,

and carry towards him in all frendlynes, and called

him to counsell with them in all cheefe affairs, as ye

other, without any distrust at all.

      Thus all things seemed to goe very comfortably and

smothly on amongst them, at which they did much

rejoyce; but this lasted not [119] long, for both Oldom

and he grew very perverse, and shewed a spirite of

great malignancie, drawing as many into faction as

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                207

they could; were they never so vile or profane, they

did nourish & back them in all their doings; so they

would but cleave to them and speak against ye church

hear; so as ther was nothing but private meetings and

whisperings amongst them; they feeding themselves &

others with what they should bring to pass in England

by the faction of their freinds their, which brought

others as well as them selves into a fools paradise.

Yet they could not cary so closly but much of both

their doings & sayings were discovered, yet outwardly

they still set a faire face of things.

     At lenght when ye ship was ready to goe, it was

observed Liford was long in writing, & sente many

letters, and could not forbear to comunicate to his

intimats such things as made them laugh in their

sleeves, and thought he had done ther errand suffi-

ciently.  The Govr and some other of his freinds know-

ing how things stood in England, and what hurt these

things might doe, tooke a shalop and wente out with

the ship a league or 2. to sea, and caled for all Lifords

& Oldums letters.  Mr. William Peirce being mr. of

ye ship, (and knew well their evil I dealing both in

England & here,) afforded him all ye assistance he

could.  He found above 20. of Lyfords letters, many

of them larg, and full of slanders, & false accusations,

tending not only to their prejudice, but to their ruine

& utter subversion.  Most of the letters they let pas,

only tooke copys of them, but some of ye most materiall

208                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

they sent true copyes of them, and kept ye originalls,

least he should deney them, and that they might

produce his owne hand against him.  Amongst his let-

ters they found ye coppyes of tow letters which he

sent inclosed in a leter of his to Mr. John Pember-

ton, a minster, and a great opposite of theirs.  These

2. letters of which he tooke the coppyes were one of

them write by a gentle-man in England to Mr. Brewster

here, the other by Mr. Winslow to Mr. Robinson, in

Holand, at his coming away, as ye ship lay at Gravs-

end.  They lying sealed in ye great cabin, (whilst

Mr. Winslow was bussie aboute the affairs of ye ship,)

this slye marchante taks & opens them, taks these

coppys, & seals them up againe; and not only sends

the coppyes of them thus to his friend and their adver-

sarie, but adds thertoo in ye margente many scurrilous

and flouting anotations.  This ship went out towards

eving, and in the night ye Govr retured.  They were

somwaht blanke at it, but after some weeks, when

they heard nothing, they then were as briske as ever,

thinking nothing had been knowne, but all was gone

currente, and that the Govr went but to dispatch his

owne letters.  The reason why the Govr & rest con-

cealed these things the longer, was to let things ripen,

that they [120] might ye better discover their intents

and see who were their adherents.  And ye rather

because amongst ye rest they found a letter of one of

their confederats, in wch was writen that Mr. Oldame

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                209

& Mr. Lyford intended a reformation in church and

commone wealth; and, as soone as the ship was gone,

they intended to joyne togeather, and have the sacre-

ments, &c.

    For Oldame, few of his leters were found, (for he

was so bad a scribe as his hand was scarce legible,)

yet he was as deepe in ye mischeefe as the other.  And

I thinking they were now strong enough, they begane

to pick quarells at every thing.  Oldame being called

to watch (according to order) refused to come, fell

out with ye Capten, caled him raskell, and beggerly,

raskell, and resisted him, drew his knife at him;

though he offered him no wrong, nor gave him no ille

termes, but with all fairnes required him to doe his

duty.  The Govr, hearing ye tumulte, sent to quiet it,

but he ramped more like a furious beast then a man,

and cald them all treatours, and rebells, and other

such foule language as I am ashamed to remember;

but after he was clapt up a while, he came to him

selfe, and with some slight punishmente was let goe

upon his behaviour for further censure.

    But to cutt things shorte, at length it grew to this

esseue, that Lyford with his complicies, without ever

speaking one word either to ye Govr, Church, or Elder,

withdrewe them selves & set up a publick meeting

aparte, on ye Lord's day; with sundry such insolente

cariages, too long here to relate, begining now pub-

likly to acte what privatly they had been long plotting.

210                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

    It was now thought high time (to prevent further

mischeefe) to calle them to accounte; so ye Govr

called a courte and sumoned the whol company to

appeare.  And then charged Lyford & Oldom with

such things as they were guilty of.  But they were

stiffe, & stood resolutly upon ye deneyall of most

things, and required proofe.  They first alledged what

was write to them out of England, compared with

their doings & pactises hear; that it was evident they

joyned in plotting against them, and disturbing their

peace, both in respecte of their civill & church state,

which was most injurious; for both they and all ye

world knew they came hither to injoye ye libertie of

their conscience and ye free use of Gods ordinances;

and for yt end had ventured their lives and passed

throwgh so much hardshipe hithertoo, and they and

their freinds had borne the charg of these beginings,

which was not small.  And that Lyford for his parte

was sent over on this charge, and that both he and

his great family was maintained on ye same, and also

was joyned to ye church, & a member of them; and

for him to plote against them & seek their ruine,

was most unjust & perfidious.  And for [121] Oldam

or any other that came over at their owne charge, and

were on ther perticuler, seeing they were received in

curtesie by the plantation, when they came only to

seeke shelter & protection under their wings, not being

able to stand alone, that they, (according to ye fable,)

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                211

like the Hedghogg whom ye conny in a stormy day in

pittie received into her borrow, would not be content

to take part with her, but in the end with her sharp

pricks forst the poore conny to forsake her owne bor-

row; so these men with the like injustice indevored to

doe ye same to thos that entertained them.

     Lyford denyed that he had any thing to doe with

them in England, or knew of their courses, and made

other things as strange that he was charged with.

Then his letters were prodused & some of them read,

at which he was struck mute.  But Oldam begane to

rage furiously, because they had intercepted and opened

his letters, threatening them in very high language,

and in a most audacious and mutinous maner stood up

& caled upon ye people, saying, My maisters, wher is

your harts?  now shew your courage, you have oft

complained. to me so & so; now is ye time, if. you will

doe any thing, I wIll stand by you, &c.  Thinking yt

everyone (knowing his humor) that had soothed and

flattered him, or other wise in their discontente uttered

any thing unto him, would now side wth him in open

rebellion.  But he was deceived, for not a man opened

his mouth, but all were silent, being strucken with the

injustice of ye thing.  Then ye Govr turned his speech

to Mr. Lyford, and asked him if he thought they had

done evill to open his letters; but he was silente, &

would not say a word, well knowing what they might

reply.  Then ye Govr shewed the people he did it as

212                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

a magistrate, and was bound to it by his place, to

prevent ye mischeefe & ruine that this conspiracie and

plots of theirs would bring on this poor colony.  But

he, besids his evill dealing hear, had delte trecherusly

with his freinds yt trusted him, & stole their letters

& opened them, and sent coppies of them, with dis-

gracefull anotations, to his freinds in England.  And

then ye Govr produced them and his other letters un-

der his owne hand, (which he could not deney,) and

caused them to be read before all ye people; at which

all his freinds were blanke, and had not a word to say.

     It would be too long & tedious here to inserte his

letters (which would almost fill a volume), though I

have them by me.  I shall only note a few of ye

cheefe things collected out of them, with ye answers

to them as they were then given; and but a few of

those many, only for instance, by which the rest may

be judged of.

     [121*]  1.  First, he saith, the church would have

none to live hear but them selves.  21y.  Neither are

any willing so to doe if they had company to live els-


     Ans:  Their answer was, that this was false, in both

ye parts of it; for they were willing & desirous yt any

honest men may live with them, that will cary them

selves peacably, and seek ye comone good, or at least

doe them no hurte.  And againe, ther are many that

          *121 is repeated in the paging of the original.

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                213

will not live els wher so long as they may live with


     2.  That if ther come over any honest men that are

not of ye seperation, they will quickly distast them, &c.

     A.  Ther answer was as before, that it was a false

callumniation, for they had many amongst them that

they liked well of, and were glad of their company;

and should be of any such like that should come

amongst them.

     3.  That they excepted against him for these  2. doc-

trins raised from 2. Sam: 12. 7.  First, that ministers

must sume times perticulerly apply their doctrine to

spetiall persons; 2ly, that great men may be reproved

as well as meaner.

     A.  Their answer was, that both these were without

either truth or colour of ye same (as was proved to

his face), and that they had taught and beleeved these

things long before they knew Mr. Liford.

      4.  That they utterly sought ye ruine of ye perticu-

lers; as appeareth by this, that they would not suffer

any of ye generall either to buy or sell with them, or

to exchaing one comioditie for another.

     Ans:  This was a most malicious slander and voyd

of all truth, as was evidently proved to him before all

men; for any of them did both buy, sell, or exchaing

with them as often as they had any occation.  Yea,

and allso both lend & give to them when they wanted;

and this the perticuler persons them selves could not

214                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

deney, but freely confest in open court.  But ye

ground from whence this arose made it much worse,

for he was in counsell with them.  When one was

called before them, and questioned for receiving pow-

der and bisket from ye guner of ye small ship, which

was ye companys and had it put in at his window in

the night, and allso for buying salt of one, that had

no right to it, he not only stood to back him (being

one of these perticulers) by excusing & extenuating

his falte, as long as he could, but upon this builds

this mischeeous & most false slander:  That because

they would not suffer them to buy stolne goods, ergo,

they sought their utter ruine.  Bad logick for a devine.

     5.  Next he writs, that he chocked them with this;

that they turned [122] men into their perticuler, and

then sought to starve them, and deprive them of all

means of subsistance.

     A.  To this was answered, he did them manifest

wrong, for they turned none into their perticuler; it

was their owne importunitie and ernest desire that

moved them, yea, constrained them to doe it.  And

they apealed to ye persons them selves for ye truth

hereof.  And they testified the same against him be-

fore all present, as allso that they had no cause to

complaine of any either hard or unkind usage.

    6.  He accuseth them with unjust distribution, and

writeth, that it was a strang difference, that some have

bene alowed 16li. of meale by ye weeke, and others

1624.]                  PLYOUTH  PLANTATION.                    215

but 4li.  And then ( floutingly) saith, it seems some

mens mouths and bellies are very litle & slender over


     Ans:  This might seeme strange indeed to those to

whom he write his leters in England, which knew not

ye reason of it; but to him and others hear, it could

not be strange, who knew how things stood.  For the

first comers had none at all, but lived on their corne.

Those wch came in ye Anne, ye August before, & were

to live 13. months of the provissions they brought,

had as good alowance in meal & pease as it would

extend too, ye most part of ye year; but a litle be-

fore harvest, when they had not only fish, but other

fruits began to come in, they had but 4li. having

their libertie to make their owne provisions.  But

some of these which came last, as ye ship carpenter,

and samiers, the salte-men & others that were to fol-

low constante imployments, and had not an howers

time, from their hard labours, to looke for any thing

above their alowance; they had at first, 16li alowed

them, and afterwards as fish, & other food coued be

gott, they had as balemente, to 14. &. 12. yea some

of them to 8. as the times & occasions did vary.  And

yet those which followed planting and their owne

occasions, and had but 4li. of meall a week, lived better

then ye other, as was well knowne to all.  And yet

it must be remembered that Lyford & his had allwais

the highest alowance.

216                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

     Many other things (in his letters) he accused them

of, with many aggravations; as that he saw exseeding

great wast of tools & vesseles; & this, when it came

to be examened, all ye instance he could give was, that

he had seen an old hogshed or too fallen to peeces,

and a broken how or tow lefte carlesly in ye feilds by

some.  Though he also knew that a godly, honest man

was appointed to looke to these things.  But these

things & such like was write of by him, to cast dis-

grace & prejudice upon them; as thinking what came

from a [123] minister would pass for currente.  Then

he tells them that Winslow should say, that ther

was not above 7. of ye adventurers yt souight ye

good of ye collony.  That Mr. Oldam & him selfe had

had much to doe with them, and that ye faction here

might match ye Jesuits for politie.  With many ye like

greevious complaints & accusations.

     1.  Then, in the next place, he comes to. give his

freinds counsell and directtion.  And first, that ye

Leyden company (Mr. Robinson & ye rest) must still

be kepte back, or els all will be spoyled.  And least

any of them should be taken in privatly somewher on

ye coast of England, (as it was feared might be done,)

they must chaing the mr. of ye ship (Mr. William

Peirce), and put another allso in Winslows stead, for

marchante, or els it would not be prevented.

    2.  Then he would have such a number provided as

might oversway them hear.  And that ye perticulers

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                217

should have voyces in all courts & elections, and be

free to bear any office.  And that every perticuler

should come over as an adventurer, if he be but a

servante; some other venturing 10li., ye bill may be

taken out in ye servants name, and then assigned to

ye party whose money it was, and good covenants

drawn betweene them for ye clearing of ye matter;

and this (saith he) would be a means to strengthen

this side ye more.

     3.  Then he tells them that if that Capten they

spoake of should come over hither as a generall, he

was perswaded he would be chosen Capten; for this

Captaine Standish looks like a silly boy, and is in

utter contempte.

     4.  Then he shows that if by ye forementioned

means they cannot be strengthened to cary & over-

bear things, it will be best for them to plant els

wher by them selves; and would have it artickled by

them that they might make choyse of any place that

they liked best within 3. or 4. myls distance, shew-

ing ther were farr better places for plantation then


      5.  And lastly he concluds, that if some number

came not over to bear them up here, then ther would

be no abiding for them, but by joyning with these

hear.  Then he adds:  Since I begane to write, ther

are letters come from your company, wherin they

would give sole authoritie in diverce things unto the

218                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

Govr here; which, if it take place, then, Ve nobis.

But I hope you will be more vigilante hereafter, that

nothing may pass in such a maner.  I suppose (saith

he) Mr. Oldame will write to you further of these

things.  I pray you conceall me in the discovery of

these things, &c.

     Thus I have breefly touched some cheefe things in

his leters, and shall now returne to their procceeding

with him.  After the reading of his leters before the

whole company, he was demanded what he could say

to these things.  [124] But all ye answer he made

was, that Billington and some others had informed him

of many things, and made sundrie complaints, which

they now deneyed.  He was againe asked if that was

a sufficiente ground for him thus to accuse & traduse

them by his letters, and never say word to them, con-

sidering the many bonds betweene them.  And so they

went on from poynte to poynte; and wisht him, or

any of his freinds & confederats, not to spare them in

any thing; if he or they had any proofe or witnes

of any corrupte or evill dealing of theirs, his or their

evidence must needs be ther presente, for ther was

the whole company and sundery strangers.  He said

he had been abused by others in their informations, (as

he now well saw,) and so had abused them.  And this

was all the answer they could have, for none would

take his parte in any thing; but Billington, & any

whom he named, deneyed the things, and protested he

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                219

wronged them, and would have drawne them to such

& such things which they could not consente too,

though they were sometimes drawne to his meetings.

Then they delte with him aboute his dissembling with

them aboute ye church, and that he professed to concur

with them in all things, and what a large confession

he made at his admittance, and that he held not

him selfe a minister till he had a new calling, &c.

And yet now he contested against them, and drew a

company aparte, & sequestred him selfe; and would

goe minister the sacrements (by his Episcopall caling)

without ever speaking a word unto them, either as

magistrats or bretheren.  In conclusion, he was fully

convicted, and burst out into tears, and "confest he

feared he was a reprobate, his sinns were so great

that he doubted God would not pardon them, he was

unsavorie salte, &c.; and that he had so wronged

them as he could never make them amends, con-

fessing all he had write against them was false &

nought, both for matter & maner." And all this

he did with as much fullnes as words & tears could


     After their triall & conviction, the court censured

them to be expeld the place; Oldame presently, though

his wife & family had liberty to stay all winter, or

longer, till he could make provission to remove them

comfortably.  Lyford had liberty to stay 6. months.

It was, indeede, with some eye to his release, if he

220                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

caried him selfe well in the meane time, and that his

repentance proved sound.  Lyford acknowledged his

censure was farr less then he deserved.

     Afterwards, he confest his sin publikly in ye church,

with tears more largly then before.  I shall here put

it downe as I find it recorded by some who tooke it

from his owne words, as him selfe utered them.  Ac-

knowledging [125]  "That he had don very evill, and

slanderously abused them; and thinking most of ye

people would take parte with him, he thought to cary

all by violence and strong hand against them.  And

that God might justly lay inocente blood to his

charge, for he knew not what hurt might have come

of these his writings, and blest God they were stayed.

And that he spared not to take knowledg from any,

of any evill that was spoaken, but shut his eyes &

ears against all the good; and if God should make

him a vacabund in ye earth, as was Caine, it was but

just, for he had sined in envie & malice against his

brethren as he did.  And he confessed 3. things to be

ye ground & causes of these his doings: pride, vaine-

glorie, & selfe love."  Amplifying these heads with

many other sade expressions, in the perticulers of


     So as they begane againe to conceive good thoughts

of him upon this his repentance, and admited him to

teach amongst them as before; and Samuell Fuller (a

deacon amongst them), and some other tender harted

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                221

men amongst them, were so taken with his signes of

sorrow & repentance, as they professed they would

fall upon their knees to have his censure released.

    But that which made them all stand amased in the

end, and may doe all others that shall come to hear

ye same, (for a rarer president can scarse be showne,)

was, that after a month or 2. notwithstand all his for-

mer conffessions, convictions, and publick acknowledg-

ments, both in ye face of ye church and whole company,

with so many tears & sadde censures of him selfe be-

fore God & men, he should goe againe to justifie what

he had done.

     For secretly he write a 2d. leter to ye adventurers

in England, in wch he justified all his former writings,

(save in some things which tended to their damage,)

the which, because it is brefer then ye former, I shall

here inserte.

     Worthy Srs:  Though the filth of mine owne doings may

justly be cast in my face, and with blushing cause my per-

petuall silence, yet that ye truth may not herby be injuried,

your selves any longer deluded, nor injurious* dealing caried

out still, with bould out faciugs, I have adventured once

more to write unto you.  Firest, I doe freely confess I delte

very indiscreetly in some of my perticuler leters wch I wrote

to private freinds, for ye courses in coming hither & the

like; which I doe in no sorte seeke to justifie, though stired

up ther unto in the beholding ye indirecte courses held by

*Inurious in MS.

222                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

others, both hear, & ther with you, for effecting their de-

signes.  But am hartily sory for it, and doe to ye glory

of God & mine owne shame acknowledg it.  Which leters

being intercepted by the Govr, I have for ye same under-

gone ye censure [126] of banishmente.  And had it not

been for ye respecte I have unto you, and some other mat-

ters of private regard, I had returned againe at this time by

ye pinass for England; for hear I purpose not to abide,

unless I receive better incouragmente from you, then from

ye church (as they call them selves) here I doe receive.  I

purposed before I came, to undergoe hardnes, therfore I shall

I hope cherf.ully bear ye conditions of ye place, though very

mean; and they have chainged my wages ten times allready.

I suppose my letters, or at least ye coppies of them, are

come to your hands, for so they hear reporte; which, if it

be so, I pray you take notice of this, that I have writen

nothing but what is certainly true, and I could make so

apeare planly to any indifferente men, whatsoever colours

be cast to darken ye truth, and some ther are very audatious

this way; besids many other matters which are farre out of

order hear.  My mind was not to enlarge my selfe any fur-

ther, but in respecte of diverse poore souls here, ye care of

whom in parte belongs to you, being here destitute of the

meas of salvation.  For how so ever ye church are provided

for, to their contente, who are ye smalest number in ye coll-

ony, and doe so appropriate ye ministrie to them selves,

houlding this principle, that ye Lord hath not appointed any

ordinary ministrie for ye conversion of those yt are without,

so yt some of ye poor souls have wth tears complained of this

to me, and I was taxed for preaching to all in generall. 

Though in truth they have had no ministrie here since they

came, but such as may be performed by any of you, by their

owne possition, what soever great pretences they make; but

herin they equivocate, as in many other things they doe.

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                223

But I exceede ye bounds I set my selfe, therfore resting

thus, untill I hear further from you, so it be within ye time

limited me.  I rest, &c.,

Remaining yours ever,


      Dated Aug: 22.  Ano: 1624.

      They made a breefe answer to some things in this

leter, but referred cheefly to their former.  The effecte

was to this purpose:  That if God in his providence

had not brought these things to their hands (both ye

former & later), they might have been thus abused,

tradused, and calumniated, overthrowne, & undone; and

never have knowne by whom, nor for what.  They

desired but this equall favoure, that they would be

pleased to hear their just defence, as well as his accu-

sations, and waigh them in ye balance of justice &

reason, and then censure as they pleased.  They had

write breefly to ye heads of things before, and should

be ready to give further [127] answer as any occasion

should require; craving leave to adde a word or tow

to this last.

     1.  And first, they desire to examene what filth

that was yt he acknowledgeth might justly be throwne

in his face, and might cause blushing & perpetuall

silence; some great mater sure!  But if it be looked

into, it amounts to no more then a poynte of indiscre-

tion, and thats all; and yet he licks of yt too with

this excuse, that he was stired up therunto by behold-

224                      HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

ing ye indirecte course here.  But this point never

troubled him here, it was counted a light matter both

by him & his freinds, and put of with this, -- that

any man might doe so, to advise his private freinds

to come over for their best advantage.  All his sor-

row & tears here was for ye wrong & hurt he had done

us, and not at all for this he pretends to be done

to you:  it was not counted so much as indiscretion.

     2.  Having thus payed you full satisfaction, he

thinks he may lay load of us here.  And first com-

plains that we have changed his wages ten times.

We never agreed with him for any wages, nor made

any bargen at all with him, neither know of any

that you have made.  You sent him over to teach

amongst us, and desired he might be kindly used;

and more then this we know not.  That he hath

beene kindly used, (and farr beter then he deserves

from us,) he shall be judged first of his owne

mouth.  If you please to looke upon that writing

of his, that was sent you amongst his leters, which

he cals a generall relation, in which, though he doth

otherwise traduse us, yet in this he him selfe clears

us.  In ye latter end therof he hath these words.

I speak not this (saith he) out of any ill affection to

the men, for I have found them very kind & loving

to me.  You may ther see these to be his owne

words under his owne hand.  21y.  It will appere by

this that he hath ever had a larger alowance of food

1624.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                225

out of ye store for him and his then any, and

clothing as his neede hath required; a dwelling in

one of our best houses, and a man wholy at his

owne comand to tend his private affairs.  What

cause he hath therfore to complaine, judge ye; and

what he means in his speech we know not, except

he aluds to yt of Jaacob & Laban.  If you have

promised him more or other wise, you may doe it

when you please.

     3.  Then with an impudente face he would have

you take notice, that (in his leters) he hath write

nothing but what is certainly true, yea, and he could

make it so appeare plainly to any indifferente men.

This indeed doth astonish us and causeth us to

tremble at ye deceitfullnes [128] and desperate wick-

ednes of mans harte.  This is to devoure holy things,

and after voues to enquire.  It is admirable that

after such publick confession, and acknowledgmente

in court, in church, before God, & men, with such

sadd expressions as he used, and with such melting

into teares, that after all this he shoud now justifie

all againe.   If things had bene done in a corner, it

had been some thinge to deney them; but being done

in ye open view of ye cuntrie & before all men, it is

more then strange now to avow to make them plainly

appear to any indifferente men; and here wher things

were done, and all ye evidence that could be were

presente, and yet could make nothing appear, but even

226                                HISTORY OF                        [BOOK II.

his freinds condemnd him & gave their voyce to his

censure, so grose were they; we leave your selves

to judge herein.  Yet least this man should triumph

in his wikednes, we shall be ready to answer him,

when, or wher you will, to any thing he shall lay to

our charg, though we have done it sufficiently allready.

     4.  Then he saith he would not inlarge, but for

some poore souls here who are destiute of ye means

of salvation, &c.  But all his soothing is but that

you would use means, that his censure might be

released that he might here continue; and under

you (at least) be sheltered, till he sees what his

freinds (on whom he depends) can bring about &

effecte.  For such men pretend much for poor souls,

but they will looke to their wages & conditions; if

that be not to their content, let poor souls doe what

they will, they will shift for them selves, and seek

poore souls some wher els among richer bodys.

     Next he fals upon ye church, that indeed is ye

burthensome stone that troubls him.  First, he saith

they hold this principle, that the Lord hath not

apointed any ordinarie ministrie for ye converssion

of those without.  The church needs not be ashamed of

what she houlds in this, haveing Gods word for her

warrente; that ordinarie officers are bound cheefly to

their flocks, Acts 20.28. and are not to be extrava-

gants, to goe, come, and leave them at their pleasurs

to shift for them selves, or to be devoured of wolves.

Continue on to Book Two / pp. 227 - 266

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