OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION
by William Bradford
Book One / Ch. 5 to 6
36 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
The 5. Chap.
Shewing what means they used for preparation to this
AND first after thir humble praiers unto God for his
direction & assistance, & a generall conferrence held
hear aboute, they consulted what perticuler place to
pitch upon, & prepare for. Some (& none of ye
meanest) had thoughts & were ernest for Guiana, or
some of those fertill places in those hott climats;
others were for some parts of Virginia, wher ye
English had all ready made enterance, & begining.
Those for Guiana aledged yt the cuntrie was rich,
fruitfull, & blessed with a perpetuall spring, and a
florishing greenes; where vigorous nature brought
forth all things in abundance & plentie without any
great labour or art of man. So as it must needs
make ye inhabitants rich, seing less provisions of cloth-
ing and other things would serve, then in more coulder
& less frutfull countries must be had. As also yt the
Spaniards (having much more then they could possess)
had not yet planted there, nor any where very near
ye same. But to this it was answered, that out of
question ye countrie was both frutfull and pleasante,
and might yeeld riches & maintenance to ye possessors,
more easily then ye other; yet, other things con-
sidered, it would not be so fitt for them. And first,
1617.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 37
yt such hott countries are subject to greevuos diseases,
and many noysome impediments, which other more
temperate places are freer from, and would not so
well agree with our English bodys. Againe, if they
should ther live, & doe well, the jealous Spaniard
would never suffer them long, but would displante
or overthrow them, as he did ye French in Florida,
who were seated furder from his richest countries;
and the sooner because they should have none to
protect them, & their owne strength would be too
smale to resiste so potent an enemie, & so neare a
On ye other hand, for Virginia it was objected, that
if they lived among ye English wch wear ther planted,
or so near them as to be under their goverment, they
should be in as great danger to be troubled and per-
secuted for the cause of religion, as if they lived in
England, and it might be worse. And if they lived
too farr of, they should neither have succour, nor de-
fence from them.
But at length ye conclusion was, to live as a dis-
tincte body by them selves, under ye generall Gover-
ment of Virginia; and by their freinds to sue to his
majestie that he would be pleased to grant them free-
dome of Religion; and yt this might be obtained, they
wear putt in good hope by some great persons, of
good ranke & qualitie, that were made their freinds.
Whereupon 2. were chosen  & sent in to England
38 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
(at ye charge of ye rest) to sollicite this matter, who
found the Virginia Company very desirous to have
them goe thither, and willing to grante them a patent,
with as ample priviliges as they had, or could grant
to any, and to give them the best furderance they
could. And some of ye cheefe of yt company douted
not to obtaine their suite of ye king for liberty in Re-
ligion, and to have it confirmed under ye kings broad
seale, according to their desires. But it prooved a
harder peece of worke then they tooke it for; for
though many means were used to bring it aboute, yet
it could not be effected; for ther were diverse of
good worth laboured with the king to obtaine it,
(amongst whom was one of his cheefe secretaries,*)
and some other wrought with ye archbishop to give
way therunto; but it proved all in vaine. Yet thus
farr they prevailed, in sounding his majesties mind,
that he would connive at them, & not molest them,
provided they carried them selves peacably. But to
allow or tolerate them by his publick authoritie, under
his seale, they found it would not be. And this was
all the cheefe of ye Virginia companie or any other of
their best freinds could doe in ye case. Yet they per-
swaded them to goe on, for they presumed they
should not be troubled. And with this answer ye mes-
sengers returned, and signified what diligence had bene
used, and to what issue things were come.
* Sr Robert Nanton.
1617.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 39
But this made a dampe in ye busines, and caused
some distraction, for many were afraid that if they
should unsetle them selves, & put of their estates,
and goe upon these hopes, it might prove dangerous,
and but a sandie foundation. Yea, it was thought
they might better have presumed hear upon without
makeing any suite at all, then, haveing made it, to be
thus rejected. But some of ye cheefest thought other
wise, and yt they might well proceede hereupon, &
that ye kings majestie was willing enough to suffer
them without molestation, though for other reasons he
would not confirme it by any publick acte. And fur-
dermore, if ther was no securitie in this promise inti-
mated, ther would be no great certainty in a furder
confirmation of ye same; for if after wards ther should
be a purpose or desire to wrong them, though they
had a seale as broad as ye house flore, it would not
serve ye turne; for ther would be means enew found
to recall or reverse it. Seeing therfore the course
was probable, they must rest herein on Gods provi-
dence, as they had done in other things.
Upon this resolution, other messengers were dis-
patched, to end with ye Virginia Company as well as
they could. And to procure  a patent with as
good and ample conditions as they might by any good
means obtaine. As also to treate and conclude with
such merchants and other freinds as had manifested
their forwardnes to provoke too and adventure in this
40 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
vioage. For which end they had instructions given
them upon what conditions they should proceed with
them, or els to conclude nothing without further ad-
vice. And here it will be requisite to inserte a letter
or too that may give light to these proceedings.
A coppie of leter from Sr: Edwin Sands, directed to Mr. John
Robinson &; Mr. William Brewster.
After my hartie salutations. The agents of your congre-
gation, Robert Cushman & John Carver, have been in
comunication with diverse selecte gentlemen of his Majesties
Counsell for Virginia; and by ye writing of 7. Articles sub-
scribed with your names, have given them yt good degree of
satisfaction, which hath caried them on with a resolution to
sett forward your desire in ye best sorte yt may be, for your
owne & the publick good. Divers perticulers wherof we leave
to their faith full reporte; having carried them selves heere with
that good discretion, as is both to their owne and their credite
from whence they came. And wheras being to treate for a
multitude of people, they have requested further time to con-
ferr with them that are to be interessed in this action, aboute
ye severall particularities which in ye prosecution therof will
fall out considerable, it hath been very willingly assented too.
And so they doe now returne unto you. If therfore it may
please God so to directe your desires as that on your parts
ther fall out no just impediments, I trust by ye same direction
it shall likewise appear, that on our parte, all forwardnes to
set yon forward shall be found in ye best sorte which with
reason may be expected. And so I betake you with this
designe (wch I hope verily is ye worke of God), to the gracious
protection and blessing of ye Highest.
London, Novbr: 12. Your very loving freind
Ano: 1617. EDWIN SANDYS.
1617.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 41
Their answer was as foloweth.
Our humble duties remembred, in our owne our messengers,
and our churches name, with all thankfull acknowledgmente
of your singuler love, expressing  itselfe, as otherwise, so
more spetially in your great care and earnest endeavor of our
good in this weightie bussines aboute Virginia, which ye less
able we are to requite, we shall thinke our selves the more
bound to comend in our prayers unto God for recompence;
whom, as for ye presente you rightly behould in our indeavors,
so shall we not be wanting on our parts (the same God assist-
ing us) to returne all answerable fruite, and respecte unto ye
labour of your love bestowed upon us. We have with ye best
speed and consideration withall that we could, sett downe our
requests in writing, subscribed, as you willed, wth the hands of
ye greatest parte of our congregation, and have sente ye same
unto ye Counsell by our agente, & a deacon of our church,
John Carver, unto whom we have also requested a gentleman
of our company to adyone him selfe; to the care & discretion
of which two, we doe referr ye prosecuting of ye bussines.
Now we perswade our selves Right Worpp: that we need not
provoke your godly & loving minde to any further or more,
tender care of us, since you have pleased so farr to interest us
in your selfe, that, under God, above all persons and things
in the world, we relye upon you, expecting the care of your
love, counsell of your wisdome, & the help & countenance of
your authority. Notwithstanding, for your encouragmente in
ye worke, so farr as probabilities may leade, we will not for-
beare to mention these instances of indusmente.
1. We veryly beleeve & trust ye Lord is with us, unto whom
& whose service we have given our selves in many trialls; and
that he will graciously prosper our indeavours according to ye
simplicitie of our harts therin.
42 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
21y. We are well weaned from ye delicate milke of our mother
countrie, and enured to ye difficulties of a strange and hard
land, which yet in a great parte we have by patience overcome.
31y. The people are for the body of them, industrious, &
frugall, we thinke we may safly say, as any company of people
in the world.
41y. We are knite togeather as a body in a most stricte &
sacred bond and covenante of the Lord, of the violation*
wherof we make great conscience, and by vertue wherof we
doe hould our selves straitly tied to all care of each others
good, and of ye whole by every one and so mutually.
5. Lastly, it is not with us as with other men, whom small
things can discourage, or small discontentments cause to wish
them selves at home againe. We knowe our entertainmente in
England, and in Holand; we shall much prejudice both our
arts & means by removall; who, if we should be driven to
returne, we should not hope to recover our present helps and
comforts, neither indeed looke ever, for our selves, to attaine
unto ye like in any other place during our lives, wch are now
drawing towards their periods.
 These motives we have been bould to tender unto you,
*NOTE. -- 0 sacred bond, whilst inviollably preserved! how sweete and
precious were the fruits that flowed from ye same, but when this fidelity de-
cayed, then their ruine approached. 0 that these anciente members had not
dyed, or been dissipated, (if it had been the will of God) or els that this holy
care and constante faithfullnes had still lived, and remained with those that
survived, and were in times afterwards added unto them. But (alass) that sub-
till serpente hath slylie wound in himselfe under faire pretences of necessitie
and ye like, to untwiste these sacred bonds and tyes, and as it were insensibly
by degrees to dissolve, or in a great measure to weaken, ye same. I have been
happy, in my first times, to see, and with much comforte to injoye, the blessed
fruits of this sweete communion, but it is now a parte of my miserie in old age,
to find and feele ye decay and wante therof (in a great measure), and with
greefe and sorrow of hart to lamente & bewaile ye same. And for others warn-
ing and admonnition, and my owne humiliation, doe I hear note ye same.
[The above reflections of the author were penned at a later period, on the
reverse pages of his History, at this place.]
1617.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 43
which you in your wisdome may also imparte to any other our
worpp: freinds of ye Counsell with you; of all whose godly dis-
possition and loving towards our despised persons, we are most
glad, & shall not faile by all good means to continue & in-
crease ye same. We will not be further troublesome, but doe,
with ye renewed remembrance of our humble duties to your
Worpp: and (so farr as in modestie we may be bould) to any
other of our wellwillers of the Counsell with you, we take our
leaves, comiting your persons and counsels to ye guidance and
direction of the Almighty.
Yours much bounden in all duty,
Leyden, Desem: 15. JOHN ROBINSON,
Ano: 1617. WILLIAM BREWSTER.
For further light in these proceedings see some other letters
& notes as followeth.
The coppy of a letter sent to Sr. John Worssenham.
Right Worpll: with due acknowledgmente of our thankfullnse
for your singular care & pains in the bussines of Virginia, for
our, &, we hope, the comone good, we doe remember our
humble dutys unto you, and have sent inclosed, as is required,
a further explanation of our judgments in the 3. points specified
by some of his majesties Honbl Privie Counsell; and though it
be greevious unto us that such unjust insinuations are made
against us, yet we are most glad of ye occasion of making our
just purgation unto so honourable personages. The declara-
tions we have sent inclosed, the one more breefe & generall,
which we thinke ye fitter to be presented; the other something
more large, and in which we express some smale accidentall
differances, which if it seeme good unto you and other of our
worpl freinds, you may send in stead of ye former. Our prayers
unto God is, yt your Worpp may see the frute of your worthy
44 HISTORY OF [CHAP. v.
endeaours, which on our parts we shall not faile to furder by
all good means in us. And so praing yt you would please with
ye convenientest speed yt may be, to give us knowledge of ye
success of ye bussines with his majesties Privie Counsell, and
accordingly what your further pleasure is, either for our direc-
tion or furtherance in ye same, so we rest
Your Worpp in all duty,
Leyden, J an: 27. JOHN ROBINSON,
Ano: 1617. old stile. WILLIAM BREWSTER.
The first breefe note was this.
Touching ye Ecclesiasticall ministrie, namly of pastores for
teaching, elders for ruling, & deacons for distributing ye
churches contribution, as allso for ye too Sacrements, bap-
tisme, and ye Lords supper, we doe wholy and in all points
agree  with ye French reformed churches, according to
their publick confession of faith.
The oath of Supremacie we shall willingly take if it be
required of us, and that conveniente satisfaction be not given
by our taking ye oath of Alleagence.
Ye 2. was this.
Touching ye Ecclesiasticall ministrie, &c. as in ye former,
we agree in all things with the French reformed churches,
according to their publick confession of faith; though some
small differences be to be found in our practises, not at all
in ye substance of the things, but only in some accidentall
1. As first, their ministers doe pray with their heads cov-
ered; ours uncovered.
2. We chose none for Governing Elders but such as are
able to teach; which abilitie they doe not require.
1617.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 45
3. Their elders & deacons are anuall, or at most for 2. or
3. years; ours perpetuall.
4. Our elders doe administer their office in admonitions &
excommunications for publick scandals, publickly & before
ye congregation; theirs more privately, & in their consistories.
5. We doe administer baptisme only to such infants as
wherof ye one parente, at ye least, is of some church, which
some of ther churches doe not observe; though in it our prac-
tice accords with their publick confession and ye judgmente of
ye most larned amongst them.
Other differences, worthy mentioning, we know none in these
points. Then aboute ye oath, as in ye former.
Subscribed, JOHN R.
Part of another letter from him that delivered these.
London. Feb: 14.
Your letter to Sr. John Worstenholme I delivered allmost
as soone as I had it, to his owne hands, and staid with him
ye opening & reading. Ther were 2. papers inclosed, he read
them to him selfe, as also ye letter, and in ye reading he spake
to me & said, Who shall make them? viz. ye ministers; I
answered his Worpp that ye power of making was in ye church,
to be ordained by ye imposition of hands, by ye fittest instru-
ments they had. It must either be in ye church or from ye
pope, & ye pope is Antichrist. Ho! said Sr. John, what ye
pope houlds good, (as in ye Trinitie,) that we doe well to
assente too; but, said he, we will not enter into dispute now.
And as for your letters he would not show them at any hand,
least he should spoyle all. He expected you should have been
of ye archbp minde for ye calling of ministers, but it seems you
differed. I could have wished to have known ye contents of
your tow inclosed, at wch he stuck so much, espetially ye larger.
46 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
I asked his Worp what good news he had for me to write to
morrow. He tould me very good news, for both the kings
majestie and ye bishops have consented. He said he would
goe to Mr. Chancelor, Sr. Fulk Grivell, as this day, & nexte
weeke I should know more. I mett Sr. Edw: Sands on Wedens-
day night; he wished me to be at the Virginia Courte ye nexte
Wedensday, wher I purpose to be. Thus loath to be troubl-
some at present, I hope to have somewhate nexte week of
certentie concerning you. I comitte you to ye Lord. Yours,
 These things being long in agitation, & mes-
sengers passing too and againe aboute them, after all
their hopes they were long delayed by many rubs that
fell in ye way; for at ye returne of these messengers
into England they found things farr otherwise then
they expected. For ye Virginia Counsell was now so
disturbed with factions and quarrels amongst them
selves, as no bussines could well goe forward. The
which may the better appear in one of ye messengers
letters as followeth.
To his loving freinds, &c.
I had thought long since to have write unto you, but could
not effecte yt which I aimed at, neither can yet sett things as
I wished; yet, notwithstanding, I doubt not but Mr. B. hath
writen to Mr. Robinson. But I thinke my selfe bound also
to doe something, least I be thought to neglecte you. The
maine hinderance of our proseedings in ye Virginia bussines,
is ye dissentions and factions, as they terme it, amongs ye
Counsell & Company of Virginia; which are such, as that
1619.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 47
ever since we came up no busines could by them be dis-
patched. The occasion of this trouble amongst them is, for
that a while since Sr. Thomas Smith, repining at his many
offices & troubls, wished ye Company of Virginia to ease him
of his office in being Treasurer & Goverr. of ye Virginia Com-
pany. Wereupon ye Company tooke occasion to dismisse him,
and chose Sr. Edwin Sands Treasurer & Goverr of ye Company.
He having 60. voyces, Sr. John Worstenholme 16. voices, and
Alderman Johnsone 24. But Sr. Thomas Smith, when he saw
some parte of his honour lost, was very angrie, & raised a
faction to cavill & contend aboute ye election, and sought to
taxe Sr. Edwin with many things that might both disgrace him,
and allso put him by his office of Governour. In which con-
tentions they yet stick, and are not fit nor readie to intermedle
in any bussines; and what issue things will come to we are
not yet certaine. It is most like Sr. Edwin will carrie it away,
and if he doe, things will goe well in Virginia; if otherwise,
they will goe ill enough allways. We hope in some 2. or 3.
Court days things will setle. Mean space I thinke to goe
downe into Kente, & come up againe aboute 14. days, or 3.
weeks hence; except either by these afforesaid contentions,
or by ye ille tidings from Virginia, we be wholy discouraged,
of which tidings I am now to speake.
Captaine Argoll is come home this weeke (he upon notice
of ye intente of ye Counsell, came away before Sr. Georg
Yeardley came ther, and so ther is no small dissention). But
his tidings are ill, though his person be wellcome. He saith
Mr. Blackwells shipe came not ther till March, but going
towards winter, they had still norwest winds, which carried
them to the southward beyond their course. And ye mr of
ye ship & some 6. of ye mariners dieing, it seemed they could
not find ye bay, till after long seeking & beating aboute. Mr.
Blackwell is dead, & Mr. Maggner, ye Captain; yea, ther are
dead, he saith, 130. persons, one & other in yt ship; it is said
48 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
ther was in all an 180. persons in ye ship, so as they were
packed togeather like herings. They had amongst them ye
fluxe, and allso wante of fresh water; so as it is hear rather
wondred at yt so many are alive, then that so many are dead.
The marchants hear say it was Mr. Blackwells faulte to pack
so many in ye ship; yea, & ther were great mutterings & repin-
ings amongst them, and upbraiding of Mr. Blackwell, for his
dealing and dispossing of them, when they saw how he had
dispossed of them, & how he insulted over them. Yea, ye
streets at Gravsend runge of their extreame quarrelings, cry-
ing out one of another, Thou hast brought me to this, and, I
may thanke the for this. Heavie newes it is, and I would be
glad to heare how farr it will discourage. I see none hear dis-
couraged much,  but rather desire to larne to beware by
other mens harmes, and to amend that wherin they have failed.
As we desire to serve one another in love, so take heed of
being inthraled by any imperious persone, espetially if they be
discerned to have an eye to them selves. It doth often trouble
me to thinke that in this bussines we are all to learne and none
to teach; but better so, then to depend upon such teachers as
Mr. Blackwell was. Such a strategeme he once made for Mr.
Johnson & his people at Emden, wch was their subversion. But
though he ther clenlily (yet unhonstly) plucked his neck out
of ye collar, yet at last his foote is caught. Hear are no
letters come, ye ship captain Argole came in is yet in ye west
parts; all yt we hear is but his report; it seemeth he came
away secretly. The ship yt Mr. Blackwell went in will be hear
shortly. It is as Mr. Robinson once said; he thought we should
hear no good of them.
Mr. B. is not well at this time; whether he will come back
to you or goe into ye north, I yet know not. For my selfe,
I hope to see an end of this bussines ere I come, though I am
sorie to be thus from you; if things had gone roundly forward,
I should have been with you within these 14. days. I pray
1619] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 49
God directe us, and give us that spirite which is fitting for
such a bussines. Thus having sumarily pointed at things wch
Mr. Brewster (I thinke) hath more largly write of to Mr. Robin-
son, I leave you to the Lords protection.
Yours in all readines, &c. London, May 8.
ROBART CUSHMAN. Ano: 1619.
A word or tow by way of digression touching this
Mr. Blackwell; he was an elder of ye church at Am-
sterdam, a man well known of most of them. He
declined from ye trueth wth Mr. Johnson & ye rest,
and went with him when yey parted assunder in yt
wofull maner, wch brought so great dishonour to God,
scandall to ye trueth, & outward ruine to them selves
in this world. But I hope, notwithstanding, through
ye mercies of ye Lord, their souls are now at rest with
him in ye heavens, and yt they are arrived in ye Haven
of hapines; though some of their bodies were thus
buried in ye terrable seas, and others sunke under ye
burthen of bitter affiictions. He with some others had
prepared for to goe to Virginia. And he, with sundrie
godly citizens, being at a private meeing (I take it a
fast) in London, being discovered, many of them were
apprehended, wherof Mr. Blackwell was one; but he
so glosed wth ye bps,* and either dissembled or flatly
denyed ye trueth which formerly he had maintained;
and not only so, but very unworthily betrayed and
accused another godly man who had escaped, that so
50 HISTORY OF [CHAP. V.
he might slip his own neck out of ye collar, & to
obtaine his owne freedome brought others into bonds.
Wherupon he so wone ye bps favour (but lost ye Lord's)
as he was not only dismiste, but in open courte ye arch-
bishop gave him great applause and his sollemne bless-
ing to proseed in his vioage. But if such events follow
ye bps blessing, happie are they yt misse ye same; it
is much better to keepe a good conscience and have
ye Lords blessing, whether in life or death.
But see how ye man thus apprehended by Mr. Black-
wells means, writs to a freind of his.
Right dear freind & christian brother, Mr. Carver, I salute
you & yours in ye Lord, &c. As for my owne presente con-
dition, I doubt not but yon well understand it ere this by our
brother Maistersone, who should have tasted of ye same cupp,
had his place of residence & his person been as well knowne
as my selfe. Some what I have written to Mr. Cushman how
ye matter still continues. I have petitioned twise to Mr. Sherives,
and once to my Lord Cooke, and have used such reasons to
move them to pittie, that if they were not overruled by some
others, I suppose I should soone gaine my libertie; as that I
was a yonge man living by my  credite, indebted to diverse
in our citie, living at more then ordinarie charges in a close &
tedious prison; besids great rents abroad, all my bnssines lying
still, my only servante lying lame in ye countrie, my wife being
also great with child. And yet no answer till ye lords of his
majesties Connsell gave consente. Howbeit, Mr. Blackwell,
a man as deepe in this action as I, was delivered at a cheaper
rate, with a great deale less adoe; yea, with an addition of
ye Archp: blessing. I am sorie for Mr. Blackwels weaknes, I
wish it may prove no worse. But yet he & some others of
1618.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 51
them, before their going, were not sorie, but thought it was for
ye best that I was nominated, not because ye Lord sanctifies evill
to good, but that ye action was good, yea for ye best. One
reason I well remember he used was, because this trouble
would encrease ye Virginia plantation, in that now people be-
gane to be more generally inclined to goe; and if he had not
nomminated some such as I, he had not bene free, being it was
knowne that diverse citizens besids them selves were ther.
I expecte an answer shortly what they intende conscerning
me; I purpose to write to some others of you, by whom you
shall know the certaintie. Thus not haveing further at present
to acquaint you withall, comending myselfe to your prair's, I
cease, & comitte you and us all to ye Lord.
From my chamber in Wodstreete Compter.
Your freind, & brother in bonds,
Septr: 4. Ano: 1618.
But thus much by ye way, which may be of instruc-
tion & good use.
But at last, after all these things, and their long
attendance, they had a patent granted them, and con-
firmed under ye Companies seale; but these devissions
and distractions had shaken of many of ther pretended
freinds, and disappointed them of much of their hoped
for & proffered means. By the advise of some freinds
this pattente was not taken in ye name of any of their
owne, but in ye name of Mr. John Wincob (a religious
gentleman then belonging to ye Countess of Lincoline),
who intended to goe with them. But God so disposed
as he never went, nor they ever made use of this patente,
52 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
which had cost them so much labour and charge, as by
ye sequell will appeare. This patente being sente over
for them to veiw & consider, as also the passages aboute
ye propossitions between them & such marchants &
freinds as should either goe or adventure with them,
and espetially with those* on whom yey did cheefly de-
pend for shipping and means, whose proffers had been
large, they were requested to fitt and prepare them
selves with all speed. A right emblime, it may be,
of ye uncertine things of this world; yt when men have
toyld them selves for them, they vanish into smoke.
Conscerning ye agreements and artickles between them,
and such marchants & other's as adventured moneys;
with other things falling out aboute making their
UPON ye receite of these things by one of their mes-
sengers, they had a sollemne meeting and a day of
humilliation to seeke ye Lord for his direction; and
their pastor tooke this texte, 1 Sam. 23. 3, 4. And
David's men said unto him, see, we be aft'aid hear in
Judah, how much more if we come -to Keilah against
ye host of the Phillistines? Then David asked counsell
of ye Lord againe, &c. From which texte he taught
many things very aptly, and befitting ther present
*Mr. Tho: Weston, &c.
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 53
occasion and condition, strengthing them against their
fears and perplexities, and incouraging them in their
resolutions.  After which they concluded both
what number and what persons should prepare them
selves to goe with ye first; for all yt were willing to
have gone could, not gett ready for their other affairs
in so shorte a time; neither if all could have been
ready, had ther been means to have trasported them
alltogeather. Those that staied being ye greater num-
ber required ye pastor to stay with them; and indeede
for other reasons he could not then well goe, and so
it was ye more easilie yeelded unto. The other then
desired ye elder, Mr. Brewster, to goe with them, which
was also condescended unto. It was also agreed on
by mutuall consente and covenante, that those that
went should be an absolute church of them selves,
as well as those yt staid; seing in such a dangrous
vioage, and a removall to such a distance, it might
come to pass they should (for ye body of them) never
meete againe in this world; yet with this proviso, that
as any of ye rest came over to them, or of ye other
returned upon occasion, they should be reputed as mem-
bers without any further dismission or testimoniall.
It was allso promised to those yt wente first, by ye
body of ye rest, that if ye Lord gave them life, & meas,
& opportunitie, they would come to them as soone as
Aboute this time, whilst they were perplexed with
54 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
ye proseedings of ye Virginia Company, & ye ill news
from thence aboute Mr. Blackwell & his company, and
making inquirey about ye hiring & buying of shiping
for their vioage, some Dutchmen made them faire offers
aboute goeing with them. Also one Mr. Thomas Weston,
a mrchant of London, came to Leyden aboute ye same
time, (who was well aquainted with some of them, and
a furtherer of them in their former proseedings,) have-
ing much conferance wth Mr. Robinson & other of ye.
cheefe of them, perswaded them to goe on (as it seems)
& not to medle with ye Dutch, or too much to depend
on ye Virginia Company; for if that failed, if they came
to resolution, he and such marchants as were his freinds
(togeather with their owne means) would sett them
forth; and they should make ready, and neither feare
wante of shipping nor money; for what they wanted
should be provided. And, not so much for him selfe
as for ye satisfing of such frends as he should procure
to adventure in this bussines, they were to draw such
articls of agreemente, and make such propossitions, as
might ye better induce his freinds to venture. Upon
which (after ye formere conclusion) articles were drawne
& agreed unto, and were showne unto him, and approved
by him; and afterwards by their messenger (Mr. John
Carver) sent into England, who, togeather with Robart
Cushman, were to receive ye moneys & make provissione
both for shiping & other things for ye vioage; with this
charge, not to exseede their coffiission, but to proseed
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 55
according to ye former articles. Also some were chossen
to doe ye like for such things as were to be prepared
there; so those that weare to goe, prepared them selves
with all speed, and sould of their estats and (such as
were able) put in their moneys into ye commone stock,
which was disposed by those appointed, for ye making
of generall provissions. Aboute this time also they
had heard, both by Mr. Weston and others, yt sundrie
Honbl: Lords had obtained a large grante from ye king,
for ye more northerly parts of that countrie, derived
out of ye Virginia patente, and wholy secluded from
their Govermente, and to be called by another name,
viz. New-England. Unto which Mr. Weston, and ye
cheefe of them, begane to incline it was  best for
them to goe, as for other reasons, so cheefly for ye hope
of present profite to be made by ye fishing that was
found in yt countrie.
But as in all bussineses ye acting parte is most diffi-
culte, espetially wher ye worke of many agents must
concurr, so it was found in this; for some of those
yt should have gone in England, fell of & would not
goe; other marchants & freinds yt had offered to ad-
venture their moneys withdrew, and pretended many
excuses. Some disliking they wente not to Guiana;
others againe would adventure nothing excepte they
wente to Virginia. Some againe (and those that were
most relied on) fell in utter dislike with Virginia, and
would doe nothing if they wente thither. In ye midds
56 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
of these distractions, they of Leyden, who had put of
their estats, and laid out their moneys, were brought
into a greate streight, fearing what issue these things
would come too; but at length ye generalitie was swaid
to this latter opinion.
But now another difficultie arose, for Mr. Weston
and some other that were for this course, either for
their better advantage or rather for ye drawing on of
others, as they pretended, would have some of those
conditions altered yt were first agreed on at Leyden.
To which ye 2. agents sent from Leyden (or at least
one of them who is most charged with it) did con-
sente; seeing els yt all was like to be dashte, &
ye opportunitie lost, and yt they which had put of
their estats and paid in their moneys were in hazard
to be undon. They presumed to conclude with ye
marchants on those termes, in some things contrary
to their order & comission, and without giving them
notice of ye same; yea, it was conceled least it should
make any furder delay; which was ye cause afterward
of much trouble & contention.
It will be meete I here inserte these conditions,
which are as foloweth.
Ano: 1620. July 1.
1. The adventurers & planters doe agree, that every person
that goeth being aged 16. years & upward, be rated at 10li.,
and ten pounds to be accounted a single share.
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 57
2. That he that goeth in person, and furnisheth him selfe
out with 10li. either in money or other provissions, be accounted
as haveing 20li. in stock, and in ye devission shall receive a
3. The persons transported & ye adventurers shall continue
their joynt stock & partnership togeather, ye space of 7. years,
(excepte some unexpected impedimente doe cause ye whole
company to agree otherwise,) during which time, all profits &
benifits that are gott by trade, traffick, trucking, working, fish-
ing, or any other means of any person or persons, remaine still
in ye comone stock untill ye division.
4. That at their coming ther, they chose out such a number
of fitt persons, as may furnish their ships and boats for fishing
upon ye sea; imploying the rest in their severall faculties upon
ye land; as building houses, tilling, and planting ye ground,
& makeing shuch comodities as shall be most use full for ye
5. That at ye end of ye 7. years, ye capitall & profits, viz.
the houses, lands, goods and chatles, be equally devided be-
twixte ye adventurers, and planters; wch done, every man
shall be free from other of them of any debt or detrimente
concerning this adventure.
 6. Whosoever cometh to ye colonie herafter, or putteth
any into ye stock, shall at the ende of ye 7. years be alowed
proportionably to ye time of his so doing.
7. He that shall carie his wife & children, or servants, shall
be alowed for everie person now aged 16. years & upward, a
single share in ye devision, or if he provid them necessaries,
a duble share, or if they be between 10. year old and 16., then
2. of them to be reconed for a person, both in trasportation
8. That such children as now goe, & are under ye age of
ten years, have noe other shar in ye devi~ion, but 50. acers of
58 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
9. That such persons as die before ye 7. years be expired,
their executors to have their parte or shaff at ye devision, pro-
portionably to ye time of their life in ye collonie.
10. That all such persons as are of this collonie, are to have
their meate, drink, apparell, and all provissions out of ye comon
stock & goods of ye said collonie.
The cheefe & principall differences betwene these &
the former conditions, stood in those 2. points; that
ye houses, & lands improved, espetialy gardens & home
lotts should remaine undevided wholy to ye planters
at ye 7. years end. 2ly, yt they should have had 2.
days in a weeke for their owne private imploymente,
for ye more comforte of them selves and their families,
espetialy such as had families. But because letters are
by some wise men counted ye best parte of histories,
I shall shew their greevances hereaboute by their owne
letters, in which ye passages of things will be more
A letter of Mr. Robinsons to John Carver.
June 14. 1620. N. Stile.
My dear freind & brother, whom with yours I alwaise re-
member in my best affection, and whose wellfare I shall never
cease to comend to God by my best & most earnest praires.
You doe throwly understand by our generall letters ye estate
of things hear, which indeed is very pitifull; espetialy by wante
of shiping, and not seeing means lickly, much less certaine, of
having it provided; though withal! ther be great want of money
& means to doe needfull things. Mr. Pickering, you know
before this, will not defray a peny hear; though Robart Gush-
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 59
man presumed of I know not how many 1001i. from him, &
I know not whom. Yet it seems strange yt we should be put
to him to receive both his & his partners adventer, and yet
Mr. Weston write unto him, yt in regard of it, he hath drawne
upon him a 1001i. more. But ther is in this some misterie,
as indeed it seems ther is in ye whole course. Besids, wheras
diverse are to pay in some parts of their moneys yet behinde,
they refuse to doe it, till they see shiping provided, or a course
taken for it. Neither doe I thinke is ther a man hear would pay
any thing, if he had againe his money in his purse. You
know right well we depended on Mr. Weston alone, and upon
such means as he would procure for this commone bussines;
and when we had in hand another course with ye Dutchmen,
broke it of at his motion, and upon ye conditions by him shortly
after propounded. He did this in his love I know, but things
appeare not answerable from him hitherto. That he should have
first have put in his moneys, is thought by many to have
been but fitt, but yt I can well excuse, he being a marchante
and haveing use of it to his benefite; wheras others, if it had
been in their hands, would have consumed it.  But yt he
should not but have had either shipping ready before this time,
or at least certaine means, and course, and ye same knowne to
us for it, or have taken other order otherwise, cannot in my
conscience be excused. I have heard yt when he hath been
moved in the bussines, he hath put it of from him selfe, and
referred it to ye others;* and would come to Georg Morton,
& enquire news of him aboute things, as if he had scarce been
some accessarie unto it. Wether he hath failed of some helps
from others which he expected, and so be not well able to goe
through with things, or whether he hath feared least you should
be ready too Boone & so encrease ye charge of shiping above
yt is meete, or whether he have thought by withhoulding to put
* Yowthers in the manuscript, an illegibly written word, doubtless intended
for "ye others."
60 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
us upon straits, thinking yt therby Mr. Brewer and Mr. Picker-
ing would be drawne by importunitie to doe more, or what
other misterie is in it, we know not; but sure 1ve are yt things
are not answerable to such an occasion. Mr. Weston maks
himselfe mery with our endeavors about buying a ship, but
we have done nothing in this but with good reason, as I am
perswaded, nor yet that I know in any thing els, save in those
tow; ye one, that we imployed Robart Cushman, who is known
(though a good man, & of spetiall abilities in his kind, yet)
most unfitt to deale for other men, by reason of his singularitie,
and too great indifferancie for any conditions, and for (to speak
truly) that* we have had nothing from him but termes & pre-
sumptions. The other, yt we have so much relyed, by implicite
faith as it were, upon generalities, without seeing ye perticuler
course & means for so waghtie an affaire set down unto us.
For shiping, Mr. Weston, it should seeme, is set upon hireing,
which yet I wish he may presently effecte; but I see litle hope
of help from hence if so it be. Of Mr. Brewer you know what
to expecte. I doe not thinke Mr. Pickering will ingage, ex-
cepte in ye course of buying, in former letters specified. Aboute
ye conditions, you have our reasons for our judgments of what is
agreed. And let this spetially be borne in minde, yt the greatest
parte of ye Collonie is like to be imployed constantly, not upon
dressing ther perticuler land & building houses, but upon fish-
ing, trading, &c. So as ye land & house will be but a trifell
for advantage to ye adventurers, and yet the devission of it
a great discouragmente to ye planters, who would with singuler
care make it comfortable with borowed houres from their sleep.
The same consideration of comone imploymente constantly by
the most is a good reason not to have ye 2. daies in a weeke
denyed ye few planters for private use, which yet is subordinate
to comone good. Consider also how much unfite that you &
your liks must serve a new prentishipe of 7. years, and not a
*This word is enclosed in brackets in the manuscript.
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 61
daies freedome from taske. Send me word what persons are
to goe, who of usefull faculties, & how many, & perticulerly
of every thing. I know you wante not a minde. I am sorie
you have not been at London all this while, but ye provissions
could not wante you. Time will suffer me to write no more;
fare you & yours well allways in ye Lord, in whom I rest.
Yours to use,
An other letter from sundrie of them at ye same time.
 To their loving freinds John Carver and Robart Cush-
man, these, &c.
Good bretheren, after salutations, &c. We received diverse
letters at ye coming of Mr. Nash & our pilott, which is a great
incouragmente unto us, and for whom we hop after times will
minister occasion of praising God; and indeed had you not
sente him, many would have been ready to fainte and goe
backe. Partly in respecte of ye new conditions which have bene
taken up by you, which all men are against, and partly in
regard of our owne inabillitie to doe anyone of those many
waightie bussineses you referr to us here. For ye former
wherof, wheras Robart Cushman desirs reasons for our dislike,
promising therupon to alter ye same, or els saing we should
thinke he hath no brains, we desire him to exercise them
therin, refering him to our pastors former reasons, and them
to ye censure of ye godly wise. But our desires are that you
will not entangle your selvs and us in any such unreasonable
courses as those are, viz. yt the marchants should have ye halfe
of mens houses and lands at ye dividente; and that persons
should be deprived of ye 2. days in a we eke agreed upon, yea
every momente of time for their owne perticuler; by reason
wherof we cannot conceive why any should carie servants for
their own help and comfort; for that we can require no more
of them then all men one of another. This we have only by
62 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
relation from Mr. Nash, & not from any writing of your owne,
& therfore hope you. have not proceeded farr in so great a
thing without us. But requiring you not to exseed the bounds
of your comission, which was to proceed upon ye things or con-
ditions agred upon and expressed in writing (at your going
over about it), we leave it, not without marveling, that your
selfe, as you write, knowing how smale a thing troubleth our
consultations, and how few, as you fear, understands the
busnes aright, should trouble us with such matters as these
Salute Mr. Weston from us, in whom we hope we are not
deceived; we pray you make known our estate unto him, and
if you thinke good shew him our letters, at least tell him (yt
under God) we much relie upon him & put our confidence in
him; and, as your selves well know, that if he had not been
an adventurer with us, we had not taken it in hand; presuming
that if he had not seene means to accomplish it, he would not
have begune it; so we hope in our extremitie he will so farr
help us as our expectation be no way made frustrate concern-
ing him. Since therfore, good brethren, we have plainly
opened ye state of things with us in this matter, you will, &c.
Thus beseeching ye Ailmightie, who is allsufficiente to raise
us out of this depth of dificulties, to assiste us herein; raising
such means by his providence and fatherly care for us, his pore
children & servants, as we may with comforte behould ye hand
of our God for good towards us in this our bussines, which we
undertake in his name & fear, we take leave & remaine
Your perplexed, yet hopfull
June 10. New Stille, bretheren,
Ano: 1620. S. F. E. W. W. B. J. A.*
*In Governor Bradford's Collection of Letters, these subscribers are thus
wrote out at length: SAMUEL FULLER, WILLIAM BRADFORD, ISAAC
ALLERTON, ED. WINSLOW. --Prince.
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 63
A letter of Robart Cushmans to them.
Brethern, I understand by letters & passagess yt have come
to me, that ther are great discontents, & dislike of my proceed-
ings amongst you. Sorie I am to hear it, yet contente to beare
it, as not doubting but yt partly by writing, and more princi-
pally by word when we shall come togeather, I shall satisfie
any reasonable man. I have been perswaded  by some,
espetialy this bearer, to come and clear things unto you; but
as things now stand I canot be absente one day, excepte I
should hazard all ye viage. Neither conceive I any great good
would come of it. Take then, brethern, this as a step to give
you contente. First, for your dislike of ye alteration of one
clause in ye conditions, if you conceive it right, ther can be no
blame lye on me at all. For ye articles first brought over by
John Carver were never seene of any of ye adventurers hear,
excepte Mr. Weston, neither did any of them like them because
of that clause; nor Mr. Weston him selfe, after he had well
considered it. But as at ye first ther was 500li. withdrawne by
Sr. Georg Farrer and his brother upon that dislike, so all ye
rest would have withdrawne (Mr. Weston excepted) if we had
not altered yt clause. Now whilst we at Leyden conclude upon
points, as we did, we reckoned without our host, which was
not my falte. Besids, I shewed you by a letter ye equitie of
yt condition, & our inconveniences, which might be sett against
all Mr. Rob: inconveniences, that without ye alteratIon of yt
clause, we could neither have means to gett thither, nor supplie
wherby to subsiste when we were ther. Yet notwithstanding
all those reasons, which were not mine, but other mens wiser
then my selfe, without answer to anyone of them, here cometh
over many quirimonies, and complaints against me, of lording
it over my brethern, and making conditions fitter for theeves
& bondslaves then honest men, and that of my owne head I
did what I list. And at last a paper of reasons, framed against
64 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
yt clause in ye conditions, which as yey were delivered me open,
so my answer is open to you all. And first, as they are no
other but inconveniences, such as a man might frame 20. as
great on ye other side, and yet prove nor disprove nothing by
them, so they misse & mistake both ye very ground of ye article
and nature of ye project. For, first, it is said, that if ther had
been no divission of houses & lands, it had been better for ye
poore. True, and yt showeth ye inequalitie of ye condition; we
should more respecte him yt ventureth both his money and his
person, then him yt ventureth but his person only.
2. Consider wheraboute we are, not giveing almes, but
furnishing a store house; no one shall be porer then another
for 7. years, and if any be rich, none can be pore. At ye least,
we must not in such bussines crie, Pore, pore, mercie, mercie.
Charitie hath it life in wraks, not in venturs; you are by this
most in a hopefull pitie of makeing, therfore complaine not be-
fore you have need.
3. This will hinder ye building of good and faire houses,
contrarie to ye advise of pollitiks. A. So we would have it;
our purpose is to build for ye presente such houses as, if need
be, we may with litle greefe set a fire, and rune away by the
lighte; our riches shall not be in pompe, but in strenght; if
God send us riches, we will imploye them to provid more men,
ships, munition, &c. You may see it amongst the best pollitiks,
that a comonwele is readier to ebe then to flow, when once fine
houses and gay cloaths come up.
4. The Govet may prevente excess in building. A. But if
it be on all men beforehand resolved on, to build mean houses,
ye Gover laboure is spared.
5. All men are not of one condition. A. If by condition
you mean wealth, you are mistaken; if you mean by condi-
tion, qualities, then I say he that is not contente his neighbour
shall have as good a house, fare, means, &c. as him selfe, is
not of a good qualitie. 2ly. Such retired persons, as have an
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 65
eie only to them selves, are fitter to come wher catching is,
then closing; and are fitter to live alone, then in any societie,
either civil or religious.
6. It will be of litle value, scarce worth 5li. A. True, it
may be not worth halfe 5li.  If then so smale a thing
will content them, why strive we thus aboute it, and give
them occasion to suspecte us to be worldly & covetous? I
will not say what I have heard since these complaints came
7. Our freinds with us yt adventure mind not their owne
profite, as did ye old adventurers. A. Then they are better
then we, who for a litle matter of profite are readie to draw
back, and it is more apparente brethern looke too it, that make
profite your maine end; repente of this, els goe not least you
be like Jonas to Tarshis. 21y. Though some of them mind
not their profite, yet others doe mind it; and why not as well
as we? venturs are made by all sorts of men, and we must
labour to give them all contente, if we can.
8. It will break ye course of comunitie, as may be showed
by many reasons. A. That is but said, and I say againe, it
will best foster comunion, as may be showed by many reasons.
9. Great profite is like to be made by trucking, fishing, &c.
A. As it is better for them, so for us; for halfe is ours, besids
our living still upon it, and if such profite in yt way come, our
labour shall be ye less on ye land, and our houses and lands
must & will be of less value.
10. Our hazard is greater then theirs. A. True, but doe
they put us upon it? doe they urge or egg us? hath not
ye motion & resolution been always in our selves? doe they
any more then in seeing us resolute if we had means, help us
to means upon equall termes & conditions? If we will not
goe, they are content to keep their moneys. Thus I have
pointed at a way to loose those knots, which I hope you will
consider seriously, and let me have no more stirre about them.
66 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
Now furder, I hear a noise of slavish conditions by me made;
but surly this is all that I have altered, and reasons I have sent
you. If you mean it of ye 2. days in a week for perticuler, as
some insinuate, you are deceived; you may have 3. days in a
week for me if you will. And when I have spoken to ye ad-
venturers of times of working, they have said they hope we are
men of discretion & conscience, and so fitte to be trusted our
selves with that. But indeed ye ground of our proceedings at
Leyden was mistaken, and so here is nothing but tottering
every day, &c.
As for them of Amsterdam I had thought they would as
soone have gone to Rome as with us; for our libertie is to
them as ratts bane, and their riggour as bad to us as ye Spanish
Inquision. If any practise of mine discourage them, let them
yet draw back; I will undertake they shall have their money
againe presently paid hear. Or if the company thinke me to
be ye Jonas, let them cast me of before we goe; I shall be con-
tent to stay with good will, having but ye cloaths on my back;
only let us have quietnes, and no more of these clamors; full
litle did I expecte these things which are now come to pass, &c.
Yours, R. CUSHMAN.
But whether this letter of his ever came to their
hands at Leyden I well know not; I rather thinke it
was staied by Mr. Carver & kept by him, forgiving
offence. But this which follows was ther received;
both which I thought pertenent to recite.
Another of his to ye aforesaid, June 11. 1620.*
Salutations, &c. I received your ler. yesterday, by John
Turner, with another ye same day from Amsterdam by Mr.
*June 11. O. S. is Lord's day, and therefore 't is likely the date of this
letter should be June 10, the same with the date of the letter following. --Prince.
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 67
W. savouring of ye place whenc it came. And indeed the
many discouragements I find her, togeather with ye demurrs
and retirings ther, had made me to say, I would give up my
accounts to John Carver, & at his comeing aquainte him fully
with all courses, and so leave it quite, with only ye pore cloaths
on my back. But gathering up my selfe by further considera-
tion,  I resolved yet to make one triall more, and to
aquainte Mr. Weston with ye fainted state of our bussines ; and
though he hath been much discontented at some thing amongst
us of late, which hath made him often say, that save for his
promise, he would not meadle at all with ye bussines any more,
yet considering how farr we were plunged into maters, & how
it stood both on our credits & undoing, at ye last he gathered
up him selfe a litle more, & coming to me 2. hours after, he
tould me he would not yet leave it. And so advising togeather
we resolved to hire a ship, and have tooke liking of one till
Monday, about 60. laste, for a greater we cannot gett, excepte
it be tow great; but a fine ship it is. And seeing our neer
freinds ther are so streite lased, we hope to assure her without
troubling them any further; and if ye ship fale too small, it
fitteth well yt such as stumble at strawes allready, may rest
them ther a while, least worse blocks come in ye way ere 7.
years be ended. If you had beaten this bussines so throuly
a month agoe, and write to us as now you doe, we could thus
have done much more conveniently. But it is as it is; I hope
our freinds ther, if they be quitted of ye ship hire, will be in-
dusced to venture ye more. All yt I now require is yt salt and
netts may ther be boughte, and for all ye rest we will here pro-
vid it; yet if that will not be, let them but stand for it a month
or tow, and we will take order to pay it all. Let Mr. Reinholds
tarie ther, and bring ye ship to Southampton. We have hired'
another pilote here, one Mr. Clarke, who went last year to
Virginia with a ship of kine.
You shall here distinctly by John Turner, who I thinke shall
68 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
come hence on Tewsday night. I had thought to have come
with him, to have answerd to my complaints; but I shal lerne
to pass litle for their censurs; and if I had more minde to goe
& dispute & expostulate with them, then I have care of this
waightie bussines, I were like them who live by clamours &
jangling. But neither my mind nor my body is at libertie to
doe much, for I am fettered with bussines, and had rather study
to be quiet, then to make answer to their exceptions. If men
be set on it, let them beat ye eair; I hope such as are my sin-
ceire freinds will not thinke but I can give some reason of my
actions. But of your mistaking aboute ye mater, & other
things tending to this bussines, I shall nexte informe you
more distinctly. Mean space entreate our freinds not to be
too bussie in answering matters, before they know them. If
I doe such things as I canot give reasons for, it is like you
have sett a foole aboute your bussines, and so turne ye reproofe
to your selves, & send an other, and let me come againe to my
Combes. But setting a side my naturall infirmities, I refuse
not to have my cause judged, both of God, & all indifferent
men; and when we come togeather I shall give accounte of
my actions hear. The Lord, who judgeth justly without
respect of persons, see into ye equitie of my cause, and give
us quiet, peacable, and patient minds, in all these turmoiles,
and sanctifie unto us all crosses whatsoever. And so I take
my leave of you all, in all love & affection.
I hope we shall gett all hear ready in 14. days.
Your pore brother,
June 11. 1620. ROBART CUSHMAN.
Besids these things, ther fell out a differance amongs
those 3. that received  the moneys & made ye pro-
vissions in England; for besids these tow formerly men-
tioned sent from Leyden for this end, viz. Mr. Carver
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 69
& Robart Cushman, ther was one chosen in England
to be joyned with them, to make ye provisions for
ye vioage; his name was Mr. Martin, he came from
Billirike in Essexe, from which parts came sundrie
others to goe with them, as also from London & other
places; and therfore it was thought meete & conveniente
by them in Roland that these strangers that were to
goe with them, should apointe one thus to be joyned
with them, not so much for any great need of their
help, as to avoyd all susspition, or jelosie of any
partiallitie. And indeed their care for giving offence,
both in this & other things afterward, turned to great
inconvenience unto them, as in ye sequell will apeare;
but however it shewed their equall & honest minds.
The provissions were for ye most parte made at South-
hamton, contrarie to Mr. Westons & Robert Cushmas
mind (whose counsells did most concure in all things).
A touch of which things I shall give in a letter of his
to Mr. Carver, and more will appear afterward.
To his loving freind Mr. John Carver, these, &c.
Loving freind, I have received from you some letters, full
of affection & complaints, and what it is you would have of
me I know not; for your crieing out, Negligence, negligence,
negligence, I marvell why so negligente a man was used in
ye bussines. Yet know you yt all that I have power to doe
hear, shall not be one hower behind, I warent you. You have
reference to Mr. Weston to help us with money, more then his
adventure; wher he protesteth but for his promise, he would
not have done any thing. He saith we take a heady course,
70 HISTORY OF [CHAP. VI.
and is offended yt our provissions are made so farr of; as also
that he was not made aquainted with our quantitie of things;
and saith yt in now being in 3. places, so farr remote, we will,
with going up & downe, and wrangling & expostulating, pass
over ye somer before we will goe. And to speake ye trueth,
ther is fallen already amongst us a flatt schisme; and we are
redier to goe to dispute, then to sett forwarde a voiage. I have
received from Leyden since you wente 3. or 4; letters
directed to you, though they only conscerne me. I will not
trouble you with them. I always feared ye event of ye Amster-
damers striking in with us. I trow you must excomunicate
me, or els you must goe without their companie, or we shall
wante no quareling; bit let them pass. We have reckoned,
it should seeme, without our host; and, counting upon a 150.
persons, ther cannot be founde above 1200li. & odd moneys
of all ye venturs you can reckone, besids some cloath, stock-
ings, & shoes, which are not counted; so we shall come shorte
at least 3. or 400li. I would have had some thing shortened
at first of beare & other provissions in hope of other adventurs,
& now we could have, both in Amsterd: & Kente, beere inough
to serve our turne, but now we cannot accept it without preju-
dice. You fear we have begune to build & shall not be able
to make an end; indeed, our courses were never established by
counsell, we may therfore justly fear their standing. Yea, ther
was a  schisme amongst us 3. at ye first. You wrote to
Mr. Martin, to prevente ye making of ye provissions in Kente,
which he did, and sett downe hi,s resolution how much he would
have of every thing, without respecte to any counsell or excep-
tion. Surely he yt is in a societie & yet regards not counsell,
may better be a king then a consorte. To be short, if ther
be not some other dispossition setled unto then yet is, we yt
should be partners of humilitie and peace, shall be examples
of jangling & insulting. Yet your money which you ther must
have, we will get provided for you instantly. 500li. you say
1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 71
will serve; for ye rest which hear & in Holand is to be used,
we may goe scratch for it. For Mr.* Crabe, of whom you write,
he hath promised to goe with us, yet I tell you I shall not be
without feare till I see him shipped, for he is much opposed,
yet I hope he will not faile. Thinke ye best of all, and bear
with patience what is wanting, and ye Lord guid us all.
Your loving freind,
London, June 10. ROBART CUSHMAN.
I have bene ye larger in these things, and so shall
crave leave in some like passages following, (thoug
in other things I shal labour to be more contracte,)
that their children may see with what difficulties their
fathers wrastled in going throug these things in their
first beginings, and how God brought them along not-
withstanding all their weaknesses & infirmities. As
allso that some use may be made hereof in after times
by others in such like waightie imployments; and here-
with I will end this chapter.
Continue on to Book One / Ch. 7 to 10
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