by William Bradford


Book One / Ch. 5 to 6

36                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

The 5. Chap.

Shewing what means they used for preparation to this

waightie vioag.

      AND first after thir humble praiers unto God for his

direction & assistance, & a generall conferrence held

hear aboute, they consulted what perticuler place to

pitch upon, & prepare for.  Some (& none of ye

meanest) had thoughts & were ernest for Guiana, or

some of those fertill places in those hott climats;

others were for some parts of Virginia, wher ye

English had all ready made enterance, & begining.

Those for Guiana aledged yt the cuntrie was rich,

fruitfull, & blessed with a perpetuall spring, and a

florishing greenes; where vigorous nature brought

forth all things in abundance & plentie without any

great labour or art of man.  So as it must needs

make ye inhabitants rich, seing less provisions of cloth-

ing and other things would serve, then in more coulder

& less frutfull countries must be had.  As also yt the

Spaniards (having much more then they could possess)

had not yet planted there, nor any where very near

ye same.  But to this it was answered, that out of

question ye countrie was both frutfull and pleasante,

and might yeeld riches & maintenance to ye possessors,

more easily then ye other; yet, other things con-

sidered, it would not be so fitt for them.  And first,

1617.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.      37

yt such hott countries are subject to greevuos diseases,

and many noysome impediments, which other more

temperate places are freer from, and would not so

well agree with our English bodys.  Againe, if they

should ther live, & doe well, the jealous Spaniard

would never suffer them long, but would displante

or overthrow them, as he did ye French in Florida,

who were seated furder from his richest countries;

and the sooner because they should have none to

protect them, & their owne strength would be too

smale to resiste so potent an enemie, & so neare a


      On ye other hand, for Virginia it was objected, that

if they lived among ye English wch wear ther planted,

or so near them as to be under their goverment, they

should be in as great danger to be troubled and per-

secuted for the cause of religion, as if they lived in

England, and it might be worse.  And if they lived

too farr of, they should neither have succour, nor de-

fence from them.

     But at length ye conclusion was, to live as a dis-

tincte body by them selves, under ye generall Gover-

ment of Virginia; and by their freinds to sue to his

majestie that he would be pleased to grant them free-

dome of Religion; and yt this might be obtained, they

wear putt in good hope by some great persons, of

good ranke & qualitie, that were made their freinds.

Whereupon 2. were chosen [19] & sent in to England

38                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

(at ye charge of ye rest) to sollicite this matter, who

found the Virginia Company very desirous to have

them goe thither, and willing to grante them a patent,

with as ample priviliges as they had, or could grant

to any, and to give them the best furderance they

could.  And some of ye cheefe of yt company douted

not to obtaine their suite of ye king for liberty in Re-

ligion, and to have it confirmed under ye kings broad

seale, according to their desires.  But it prooved a

harder peece of worke then they tooke it for; for

though many means were used to bring it aboute, yet

it could not be effected; for ther were diverse of

good worth laboured with the king to obtaine it,

(amongst whom was one of his cheefe secretaries,*)

and some other wrought with ye archbishop to give

way therunto; but it proved all in vaine.  Yet thus

farr they prevailed, in sounding his majesties mind,

that he would connive at them, & not molest them,

provided they carried them selves peacably.  But to

allow or tolerate them by his publick authoritie, under

his seale, they found it would not be.  And this was

all the cheefe of ye Virginia companie or any other of

their best freinds could doe in ye case.  Yet they per-

swaded them to goe on, for they presumed they

should not be troubled.  And with this answer ye mes-

sengers returned, and signified what diligence had bene

used, and to what issue things were come.

* Sr Robert Nanton.

1617.]        PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                39

    But this made a dampe in ye busines, and caused

some distraction, for many were afraid that if they

should unsetle them selves, & put of their estates,

and goe upon these hopes, it might prove dangerous,

and but a sandie foundation.  Yea, it was thought

they might better have presumed hear upon without

makeing any suite at all, then, haveing made it, to be

thus rejected.  But some of ye cheefest thought other

wise, and yt they might well proceede hereupon, &

that ye kings majestie was willing enough to suffer

them without molestation, though for other reasons he

would not confirme it by any publick acte.  And fur-

dermore, if ther was no securitie in this promise inti-

mated, ther would be no great certainty in a furder

confirmation of ye same; for if after wards ther should

be a purpose or desire to wrong them, though they

had a seale as broad as ye house flore, it would not

serve ye turne; for ther would be means enew found

to recall or reverse it.  Seeing therfore the course

was probable, they must rest herein on Gods provi-

dence, as they had done in other things.

     Upon this resolution, other messengers were dis-

patched, to end with ye Virginia Company as well as

they could.  And to procure [20] a patent with as

good and ample conditions as they might by any good

means obtaine.  As also to treate and conclude with

such merchants and other freinds as had manifested

their forwardnes to provoke too and adventure in this

40                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

vioage. For which end they had instructions given

them upon what conditions they should proceed with

them, or els to conclude nothing without further ad-

vice.  And here it will be requisite to inserte a letter

or too that may give light to these proceedings.

A coppie of leter from Sr: Edwin Sands, directed to Mr. John

Robinson &; Mr. William Brewster.

     After my hartie salutations. The agents of your congre-

gation, Robert Cushman & John Carver, have been in

comunication with diverse selecte gentlemen of his Majesties

Counsell for Virginia; and by ye writing of 7.  Articles sub-

scribed with your names, have given them yt good degree of

satisfaction, which hath caried them on with a resolution to

sett forward your desire in ye best sorte yt may be, for your

owne & the publick good. Divers perticulers wherof we leave

to their faith full reporte; having carried them selves heere with

that good discretion, as is both to their owne and their credite

from whence they came. And wheras being to treate for a

multitude of people, they have requested further time to con-

ferr with them that are to be interessed in this action, aboute

ye severall particularities which in ye prosecution therof will

fall out considerable, it hath been very willingly assented too.

And so they doe now returne unto you.  If therfore it may

please God so to directe your desires as that on your parts

ther fall out no just impediments, I trust by ye same direction

it shall likewise appear, that on our parte, all forwardnes to

set yon forward shall be found in ye best sorte which with

reason may be expected.  And so I betake you with this

designe (wch I hope verily is ye worke of God), to the gracious

protection and blessing of ye Highest.

London, Novbr: 12.                 Your very loving freind

Ano: 1617.                     EDWIN SANDYS.

1617.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                41

Their answer was as foloweth.

Righte Worpl:

     Our humble duties remembred, in our owne our messengers,

and our churches name, with all thankfull acknowledgmente

of your singuler love, expressing [21] itselfe, as otherwise, so

more spetially in your great care and earnest endeavor of our

good in this weightie bussines aboute Virginia, which ye less

able we are to requite, we shall thinke our selves the more

bound to comend in our prayers unto God for recompence;

whom, as for ye presente you rightly behould in our indeavors,

so shall we not be wanting on our parts (the same God assist-

ing us) to returne all answerable fruite, and respecte unto ye

labour of your love bestowed upon us.  We have with ye best

speed and consideration withall that we could, sett downe our

requests in writing, subscribed, as you willed, wth the hands of

ye greatest parte of our congregation, and have sente ye same

unto ye Counsell by our agente, & a deacon of our church,

John Carver, unto whom we have also requested a gentleman

of our company to adyone him selfe; to the care & discretion

of which two, we doe referr ye prosecuting of ye bussines.

Now we perswade our selves Right Worpp: that we need not

provoke your godly & loving minde to any further or more,

tender care of us, since you have pleased so farr to interest us

in your selfe, that, under God, above all persons and things

in the world, we relye upon you, expecting the care of your

love, counsell of your wisdome, & the help & countenance of

your authority.  Notwithstanding, for your encouragmente in

ye worke, so farr as probabilities may leade, we will not for-

beare to mention these instances of indusmente.

     1.  We veryly beleeve & trust ye Lord is with us, unto whom

& whose service we have given our selves in many trialls; and

that he will graciously prosper our indeavours according to ye

simplicitie of our harts therin.

42                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

     21y.  We are well weaned from ye delicate milke of our mother

countrie, and enured to ye difficulties of a strange and hard

land, which yet in a great parte we have by patience overcome.

     31y.  The people are for the body of them, industrious, &

frugall, we thinke we may safly say, as any company of people

in the world.

     41y.  We are knite togeather as a body in a most stricte &

sacred bond and covenante of the Lord, of the violation*

wherof we make great conscience, and by vertue wherof we

doe hould our selves straitly tied to all care of each others

good, and of ye whole by every one and so mutually.

     5.  Lastly, it is not with us as with other men, whom small

things can discourage, or small discontentments cause to wish

them selves at home againe.  We knowe our entertainmente in

England, and in Holand; we shall much prejudice both our

arts & means by removall; who, if we should be driven to

returne, we should not hope to recover our present helps and

comforts, neither indeed looke ever, for our selves, to attaine

unto ye like in any other place during our lives, wch are now

drawing towards their periods.

     [22] These motives we have been bould to tender unto you,

*NOTE. -- 0 sacred bond, whilst inviollably preserved! how sweete and

precious were the fruits that flowed from ye same, but when this fidelity de-

cayed, then their ruine approached.  0 that these anciente members had not

dyed, or been dissipated, (if it had been the will of God) or els that this holy

care and constante faithfullnes had still lived, and remained with those that

survived, and were in times afterwards added unto them. But (alass) that sub-

till serpente hath slylie wound in himselfe under faire pretences of necessitie

and ye like, to untwiste these sacred bonds and tyes, and as it were insensibly

by degrees to dissolve, or in a great measure to weaken, ye same.  I have been

happy, in my first times, to see, and with much comforte to injoye, the blessed

fruits of this sweete communion, but it is now a parte of my miserie in old age,

to find and feele ye decay and wante therof (in a great measure), and with

greefe and sorrow of hart to lamente & bewaile ye same.  And for others warn-

ing and admonnition, and my owne humiliation, doe I hear note ye same.

[The above reflections of the author were penned at a later period, on the

reverse pages of his History, at this place.]

1617.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                43

which you in your wisdome may also imparte to any other our

worpp: freinds of ye Counsell with you; of all whose godly dis-

possition and loving towards our despised persons, we are most

glad, & shall not faile by all good means to continue & in-

crease ye same.  We will not be further troublesome, but doe,

with ye renewed remembrance of our humble duties to your

Worpp: and (so farr as in modestie we may be bould) to any

other of our wellwillers of the Counsell with you, we take our

leaves, comiting your persons and counsels to ye guidance and

direction of the Almighty.

Yours much bounden in all duty,

Leyden, Desem: 15.                            JOHN ROBINSON,

Ano: 1617.                                          WILLIAM BREWSTER.

For further light in these proceedings see some other letters

& notes as followeth.

The coppy of a letter sent to Sr. John Worssenham.

     Right Worpll:  with due acknowledgmente of our thankfullnse

for your singular care & pains in the bussines of Virginia, for

our, &, we hope, the comone good, we doe remember our

humble dutys unto you, and have sent inclosed, as is required,

a further explanation of our judgments in the 3. points specified

by some of his majesties Honbl Privie Counsell; and though it

be greevious unto us that such unjust insinuations are made

against us, yet we are most glad of ye occasion of making our

just purgation unto so honourable personages.  The declara-

tions we have sent inclosed, the one more breefe & generall,

which we thinke ye fitter to be presented; the other something

more large, and in which we express some smale accidentall

differances, which if it seeme good unto you and other of our

worpl freinds, you may send in stead of ye former.  Our prayers

unto God is, yt your Worpp may see the frute of your worthy

44                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. v.

endeaours, which on our parts we shall not faile to furder by

all good means in us. And so praing yt you would please with

ye convenientest speed yt may be, to give us knowledge of ye

success of ye bussines with his majesties Privie Counsell, and

accordingly what your further pleasure is, either for our direc-

tion or furtherance in ye same, so we rest

Your Worpp in all duty,

    Leyden, J an: 27.                           JOHN ROBINSON,

    Ano: 1617. old stile.                     WILLIAM BREWSTER.

The first breefe note was this.

     Touching ye Ecclesiasticall ministrie, namly of pastores for

teaching, elders for ruling, & deacons for distributing ye

churches contribution, as allso for ye too Sacrements, bap-

tisme, and ye Lords supper, we doe wholy and in all points

agree [23] with ye French reformed churches, according to

their publick confession of faith.

     The oath of Supremacie we shall willingly take if it be

required of us, and that conveniente satisfaction be not given

by our taking ye oath of Alleagence.



Ye 2. was this.

     Touching ye Ecclesiasticall ministrie, &c. as in ye former,

we agree in all things with the French reformed churches,

according to their publick confession of faith; though some

small differences be to be found in our practises, not at all

in ye substance of the things, but only in some accidentall


1.  As first, their ministers doe pray with their heads cov-

ered; ours uncovered.

2.  We chose none for Governing Elders but such as are

able to teach; which abilitie they doe not require.

1617.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                45

    3.  Their elders & deacons are anuall, or at most for 2. or

3. years; ours perpetuall.

    4.  Our elders doe administer their office in admonitions &

excommunications for publick scandals, publickly & before

ye congregation; theirs more privately, & in their consistories.

    5.  We doe administer baptisme only to such infants as

wherof ye one parente, at ye least, is of some church, which

some of ther churches doe not observe; though in it our prac-

tice accords with their publick confession and ye judgmente of

ye most larned amongst them.

     Other differences, worthy mentioning, we know none in these

points.  Then aboute ye oath, as in ye former.

Subscribed,                    JOHN R.

W. B.

Part of another letter from him that delivered these.

London. Feb: 14.


Your letter to Sr. John Worstenholme I delivered allmost

as soone as I had it, to his owne hands, and staid with him

ye opening & reading.  Ther were 2. papers inclosed, he read

them to him selfe, as also ye letter, and in ye reading he spake

to me & said, Who shall make them?  viz. ye ministers;  I

answered his Worpp that ye power of making was in ye church,

to be ordained by ye imposition of hands, by ye fittest instru-

ments they had.  It must either be in ye church or from ye

pope, & ye pope is Antichrist.  Ho! said Sr. John, what ye

pope houlds good, (as in ye Trinitie,) that we doe well to

assente too; but, said he, we will not enter into dispute now.

And as for your letters he would not show them at any hand,

least he should spoyle all.  He expected you should have been

of ye archbp minde for ye calling of ministers, but it seems you

differed.  I could have wished to have known ye contents of

your tow inclosed, at wch he stuck so much, espetially ye larger.

46                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

I asked his Worp what good news he had for me to write to

morrow.  He tould me very good news, for both the kings

majestie and ye bishops have consented.  He said he would

goe to Mr. Chancelor, Sr. Fulk Grivell, as this day, & nexte

weeke I should know more.  I mett Sr. Edw: Sands on Wedens-

day night; he wished me to be at the Virginia Courte ye nexte

Wedensday, wher I purpose to be.  Thus loath to be troubl-

some at present, I hope to have somewhate nexte week of

certentie concerning you.  I comitte you to ye Lord. Yours,

                                                                                      S. B.

[24] These things being long in agitation, & mes-

sengers passing too and againe aboute them, after all

their hopes they were long delayed by many rubs that

fell in ye way; for at ye returne of these messengers

into England they found things farr otherwise then

they expected.  For ye Virginia Counsell was now so

disturbed with factions and quarrels amongst them

selves, as no bussines could well goe forward.  The

which may the better appear in one of ye messengers

letters as followeth.

          To his loving freinds, &c.

     I had thought long since to have write unto you, but could

not effecte yt which I aimed at, neither can yet sett things as

I wished; yet, notwithstanding, I doubt not but Mr. B. hath

writen to Mr. Robinson.  But I thinke my selfe bound also

to doe something, least I be thought to neglecte you.  The

maine hinderance of our proseedings in ye Virginia bussines,

is ye dissentions and factions, as they terme it, amongs ye

Counsell & Company of Virginia; which are such, as that

1619.]        PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                          47

ever since we came up no busines could by them be dis-

patched.  The occasion of this trouble amongst them is, for

that a while since Sr. Thomas Smith, repining at his many

offices & troubls, wished ye Company of Virginia to ease him

of his office in being Treasurer & Goverr. of ye Virginia Com-

pany.  Wereupon ye Company tooke occasion to dismisse him,

and chose Sr. Edwin Sands Treasurer & Goverr of ye Company.

He having 60. voyces, Sr. John Worstenholme 16. voices, and

Alderman Johnsone 24.  But Sr. Thomas Smith, when he saw

some parte of his honour lost, was very angrie, & raised a

faction to cavill & contend aboute ye election, and sought to

taxe Sr. Edwin with many things that might both disgrace him,

and allso put him by his office of Governour.  In which con-

tentions they yet stick, and are not fit nor readie to intermedle

in any bussines; and what issue things will come to we are

not yet certaine.  It is most like Sr. Edwin will carrie it away,

and if he doe, things will goe well in Virginia; if otherwise,

they will goe ill enough allways.  We hope in some 2. or 3.

Court days things will setle.  Mean space I thinke to goe

downe into Kente, & come up againe aboute 14. days, or 3.

weeks hence; except either by these afforesaid contentions,

or by ye ille tidings from Virginia, we be wholy discouraged,

of which tidings I am now to speake.

     Captaine Argoll is come home this weeke (he upon notice

of ye intente of ye Counsell, came away before Sr. Georg

Yeardley came ther, and so ther is no small dissention).  But

his tidings are ill, though his person be wellcome.  He saith

Mr. Blackwells shipe came not ther till March, but going

towards winter, they had still norwest winds, which carried

them to the southward beyond their course.  And ye mr of

ye ship & some 6. of ye mariners dieing, it seemed they could

not find ye bay, till after long seeking & beating aboute.  Mr.

Blackwell is dead, & Mr. Maggner, ye Captain; yea, ther are

dead, he saith, 130. persons, one & other in yt ship; it is said

48                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

ther was in all an 180. persons in ye ship, so as they were

packed togeather like herings.  They had amongst them ye

fluxe, and allso wante of fresh water; so as it is hear rather

wondred at yt so many are alive, then that so many are dead.

The marchants hear say it was Mr. Blackwells faulte to pack

so many in ye ship; yea, & ther were great mutterings & repin-

ings amongst them, and upbraiding of Mr. Blackwell, for his

dealing and dispossing of them, when they saw how he had

dispossed of them, & how he insulted over them.  Yea, ye

streets at Gravsend runge of their extreame quarrelings, cry-

ing out one of another, Thou hast brought me to this, and, I

may thanke the for this.  Heavie newes it is, and I would be

glad to heare how farr it will discourage.  I see none hear dis-

couraged much, [25] but rather desire to larne to beware by

other mens harmes, and to amend that wherin they have failed.

As we desire to serve one another in love, so take heed of

being inthraled by any imperious persone, espetially if they be

discerned to have an eye to them selves.  It doth often trouble

me to thinke that in this bussines we are all to learne and none

to teach; but better so, then to depend upon such teachers as

Mr. Blackwell was.  Such a strategeme he once made for Mr.

Johnson & his people at Emden, wch was their subversion.  But

though he ther clenlily (yet unhonstly) plucked his neck out

of ye collar, yet at last his foote is caught.  Hear are no

letters come, ye ship captain Argole came in is yet in ye west

parts; all yt  we hear is but his report; it seemeth he came

away secretly.  The ship yt Mr. Blackwell went in will be hear

shortly.  It is as Mr. Robinson once said; he thought we should

hear no good of them.

      Mr. B. is not well at this time; whether he will come back

to you or goe into ye north, I yet know not.  For my selfe,

I hope to see an end of this bussines ere I come, though I am

sorie to be thus from you; if things had gone roundly forward,

I should have been with you within these 14. days.  I pray

1619]         PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                49

God directe us, and give us that spirite which is fitting for

such a bussines.  Thus having sumarily pointed at things wch

Mr. Brewster (I thinke) hath more largly write of to Mr. Robin-

son, I leave you to the Lords protection.

Yours in all readines, &c.                 London, May 8.

ROBART CUSHMAN.               Ano: 1619.

     A word or tow by way of digression touching this

Mr. Blackwell; he was an elder of ye church at Am-

sterdam, a man well known of most of them. He

declined from ye trueth wth Mr. Johnson & ye rest,

and went with him when yey parted assunder in yt

wofull maner, wch brought so great dishonour to God,

scandall to ye trueth, & outward ruine to them selves

in this world.  But I hope, notwithstanding, through

ye mercies of ye Lord, their souls are now at rest with

him in ye heavens, and yt they are arrived in ye Haven

of hapines; though some of their bodies were thus

buried in ye terrable seas, and others sunke under ye

burthen of bitter affiictions.  He with some others had

prepared for to goe to Virginia.  And he, with sundrie

godly citizens, being at a private meeing (I take it a

fast) in London, being discovered, many of them were

apprehended, wherof Mr. Blackwell was one; but he

so glosed wth ye bps,* and either dissembled or flatly

denyed ye trueth which formerly he had maintained;

and not only so, but very unworthily betrayed and

accused another godly man who had escaped, that so

                             * Bishops.

50                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. V.

he might slip his own neck out of ye collar, & to

obtaine his owne freedome brought others into bonds.

Wherupon he so wone ye bps favour (but lost ye Lord's)

as he was not only dismiste, but in open courte ye arch-

bishop gave him great applause and his sollemne bless-

ing to proseed in his vioage.  But if such events follow

ye bps blessing, happie are they yt misse ye same; it

is much better to keepe a good conscience and have

ye Lords blessing, whether in life or death.

     But see how ye man thus apprehended by Mr. Black-

wells means, writs to a freind of his.

      Right dear freind & christian brother, Mr. Carver, I salute

you & yours in ye Lord, &c.  As for my owne presente con-

dition, I doubt not but yon well understand it ere this by our

brother Maistersone, who should have tasted of ye same cupp,

had his place of residence & his person been as well knowne

as my selfe.  Some what I have written to Mr. Cushman how

ye matter still continues.  I have petitioned twise to Mr. Sherives,

and once to my Lord Cooke, and have used such reasons to

move them to pittie, that if they were not overruled by some

others, I suppose I should soone gaine my libertie; as that I

was a yonge man living by my [26] credite, indebted to diverse

in our citie, living at more then ordinarie charges in a close &

tedious prison; besids great rents abroad, all my bnssines lying

still, my only servante lying lame in ye countrie, my wife being

also great with child.  And yet no answer till ye lords of his

majesties Connsell gave consente.  Howbeit, Mr. Blackwell,

a man as deepe in this action as I, was delivered at a cheaper

rate, with a great deale less adoe; yea, with an addition of

ye Archp:  blessing.  I am sorie for Mr. Blackwels weaknes, I

wish it may prove no worse.  But yet he & some others of

1618.]         PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                          51

them, before their going, were not sorie, but thought it was for

ye best that I was nominated, not because ye Lord sanctifies evill

to good, but that ye action was good, yea for ye best.  One

reason I well remember he used was, because this trouble

would encrease ye Virginia plantation, in that now people be-

gane to be more generally inclined to goe; and if he had not

nomminated some such as I, he had not bene free, being it was

knowne that diverse citizens besids them selves were ther.

I expecte an answer shortly what they intende conscerning

me; I purpose to write to some others of you, by whom you

shall know the certaintie.  Thus not haveing further at present

to acquaint you withall, comending myselfe to your prair's, I

cease, & comitte you and us all to ye Lord.

From my chamber in Wodstreete Compter.

Your freind, & brother in bonds,


Septr: 4. Ano: 1618.

    But thus much by ye way, which may be of instruc-

tion & good use.

    But at last, after all these things, and their long

attendance, they had a patent granted them, and con-

firmed under ye Companies seale; but these devissions

and distractions had shaken of many of ther pretended

freinds, and disappointed them of much of their hoped

for & proffered means.  By the advise of some freinds

this pattente was not taken in ye name of any of their

owne, but in ye name of Mr. John Wincob (a religious

gentleman then belonging to ye Countess of Lincoline),

who intended to goe with them. But God so disposed

as he never went, nor they ever made use of this patente,

52                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

which had cost them so much labour and charge, as by

ye sequell will appeare.  This patente being sente over

for them to veiw & consider, as also the passages aboute

ye propossitions between them & such marchants &

freinds as should either goe or adventure with them,

and espetially with those* on whom yey did cheefly de-

pend for shipping and means, whose proffers had been

large, they were requested to fitt and prepare them

selves with all speed.  A right emblime, it may be,

of ye uncertine things of this world; yt when men have

toyld them selves for them, they vanish into smoke.

The 6. Chap. 

Conscerning ye agreements and artickles between them,

and such marchants & other's as adventured moneys;

with other things falling out aboute making their


    UPON ye receite of these things by one of their mes-

sengers, they had a sollemne meeting and a day of

humilliation to seeke ye Lord for his direction; and

their pastor tooke this texte, 1 Sam. 23. 3, 4.  And

David's men said unto him, see, we be aft'aid hear in

Judah, how much more if we come -to Keilah against

ye host of the Phillistines?  Then David asked counsell

of ye Lord againe, &c. From which texte he taught

many things very aptly, and befitting ther present

*Mr. Tho: Weston, &c.

1620.]         PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.               53


occasion and condition, strengthing them against their

fears and perplexities, and incouraging them in their

resolutions. [27]  After which they concluded both

what number and what persons should prepare them

selves to goe with ye first; for all yt were willing to

have gone could, not gett ready for their other affairs

in so shorte a time; neither if all could have been

ready, had ther been means to have trasported them

alltogeather.  Those that staied being ye greater num-

ber required ye pastor to stay with them; and indeede

for other reasons he could not then well goe, and so

it was ye more easilie yeelded unto.  The other then

desired ye elder, Mr. Brewster, to goe with them, which

was also condescended unto.  It was also agreed on

by mutuall consente and covenante, that those that

went should be an absolute church of them selves,

as well as those yt staid; seing in such a dangrous

vioage, and a removall to such a distance, it might

come to pass they should (for ye body of them) never

meete againe in this world; yet with this proviso, that

as any of ye rest came over to them, or of ye other

returned upon occasion, they should be reputed as mem-

bers without any further dismission or testimoniall.

It was allso promised to those yt wente first, by ye

body of ye rest, that if ye Lord gave them life, & meas,

& opportunitie, they would come to them as soone as

they could.

    Aboute this time, whilst they were perplexed with

54                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

ye proseedings of ye Virginia Company, & ye ill news

from thence aboute Mr. Blackwell & his company, and

making inquirey about ye hiring & buying of shiping

for their vioage, some Dutchmen made them faire offers

aboute goeing with them.  Also one Mr. Thomas Weston,

a mrchant of London, came to Leyden aboute ye same

time, (who was well aquainted with some of them, and

a furtherer of them in their former proseedings,) have-

ing much conferance wth Mr. Robinson & other of ye.

cheefe of them, perswaded them to goe on (as it seems)

& not to medle with ye Dutch, or too much to depend

on ye Virginia Company; for if that failed, if they came

to resolution, he and such marchants as were his freinds

(togeather with their owne means) would sett them

forth; and they should make ready, and neither feare

wante of shipping nor money; for what they wanted

should be provided.  And, not so much for him selfe

as for ye satisfing of such frends as he should procure

to adventure in this bussines, they were to draw such

articls of agreemente, and make such propossitions, as

might ye better induce his freinds to venture.  Upon

which (after ye formere conclusion) articles were drawne

& agreed unto, and were showne unto him, and approved

by him; and afterwards by their messenger (Mr. John

Carver) sent into England, who, togeather with Robart

Cushman, were to receive ye moneys & make provissione

both for shiping & other things for ye vioage; with this

charge, not to exseede their coffiission, but to proseed

1620.]        PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                55

according to ye former articles.  Also some were chossen

to doe ye like for such things as were to be prepared

there; so those that weare to goe, prepared them selves

with all speed, and sould of their estats and (such as

were able) put in their moneys into ye commone stock,

which was disposed by those appointed, for ye making

of generall provissions.  Aboute this time also they

had heard, both by Mr. Weston and others, yt sundrie

Honbl:  Lords had obtained a large grante from ye king,

for ye more northerly parts of that countrie, derived

out of ye Virginia patente, and wholy secluded from

their Govermente, and to be called by another name,

viz. New-England.  Unto which Mr. Weston, and ye

cheefe of them, begane to incline it was [28] best for

them to goe, as for other reasons, so cheefly for ye hope

of present profite to be made by ye fishing that was

found in yt countrie.

    But as in all bussineses ye acting parte is most diffi-

culte, espetially wher ye worke of many agents must

concurr, so it was found in this; for some of those

yt should have gone in England, fell of & would not

goe; other marchants & freinds yt had offered to ad-

venture their moneys withdrew, and pretended many

excuses.  Some disliking they wente not to Guiana;

others againe would adventure nothing excepte they

wente to Virginia.  Some againe (and those that were

most relied on) fell in utter dislike with Virginia, and

would doe nothing if they wente thither.  In ye midds

56                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

of these distractions, they of Leyden, who had put of

their estats, and laid out their moneys, were brought

into a greate streight, fearing what issue these things

would come too; but at length ye generalitie was swaid

to this latter opinion.

     But now another difficultie arose, for Mr. Weston

and some other that were for this course, either for

their better advantage or rather for ye drawing on of

others, as they pretended, would have some of those

conditions altered yt were first agreed on at Leyden. 

To which ye 2. agents sent from Leyden (or at least

one of them who is most charged with it) did con-

sente; seeing els yt all was like to be dashte, &

ye opportunitie lost, and yt they which had put of

their estats and paid in their moneys were in hazard

to be undon.  They presumed to conclude with ye

marchants on those termes, in some things contrary

to their order & comission, and without giving them

notice of ye same; yea, it was conceled least it should

make any furder delay; which was ye cause afterward

of much trouble & contention.

      It will be meete I here inserte these conditions,

which are as foloweth.

     Ano: 1620. July 1.

     1.  The adventurers & planters doe agree, that every person

that goeth being aged 16. years & upward, be rated at 10li.,

and ten pounds to be accounted a single share.

1620.]        PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                57

    2.  That he that goeth in person, and furnisheth him selfe

out with 10li. either in money or other provissions, be accounted

as haveing 20li. in stock, and in ye devission shall receive a

double share.

     3.  The persons transported & ye adventurers shall continue

their joynt stock & partnership togeather, ye space of 7. years,

(excepte some unexpected impedimente doe cause ye whole

company to agree otherwise,) during which time, all profits &

benifits that are gott by trade, traffick, trucking, working, fish-

ing, or any other means of any person or persons, remaine still

in ye comone stock untill ye division.

     4.  That at their coming ther, they chose out such a number

of fitt persons, as may furnish their ships and boats for fishing

upon ye sea; imploying the rest in their severall faculties upon

ye land; as building houses, tilling, and planting ye ground,

& makeing shuch comodities as shall be most use full for ye


      5.  That at ye end of ye 7. years, ye capitall & profits, viz.

the houses, lands, goods and chatles, be equally devided be-

twixte ye adventurers, and planters; wch done, every man

shall be free from other of them of any debt or detrimente

concerning this adventure.

[29]  6.  Whosoever cometh to ye colonie herafter, or putteth

any into ye stock, shall at the ende of ye 7. years be alowed

proportionably to ye time of his so doing.

     7.  He that shall carie his wife & children, or servants, shall

be alowed for everie person now aged 16. years & upward, a

single share in ye devision, or if he provid them necessaries,

a duble share, or if they be between 10. year old and 16., then

2. of them to be reconed for a person, both in trasportation

and devision.

      8.  That such children as now goe, & are under ye age of

ten years, have noe other shar in ye devi~ion, but 50. acers of

unmanured land.

58                         HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

     9.  That such persons as die before ye 7. years be expired,

their executors to have their parte or shaff at ye devision, pro-

portionably to ye time of their life in ye collonie.

     10.  That all such persons as are of this collonie, are to have

their meate, drink, apparell, and all provissions out of ye comon

stock & goods of ye said collonie.

     The cheefe & principall differences betwene these &

the former conditions, stood in those 2. points; that

ye houses, & lands improved, espetialy gardens & home

lotts should remaine undevided wholy to ye planters

at ye 7. years end.  2ly, yt they should have had 2.

days in a weeke for their owne private imploymente,

for ye more comforte of them selves and their families,

espetialy such as had families.  But because letters are

by some wise men counted ye best parte of histories,

I shall shew their greevances hereaboute by their owne

letters, in which ye passages of things will be more

truly discerned.

A letter of Mr. Robinsons to John Carver.

June 14. 1620. N. Stile.

My dear freind & brother, whom with yours I alwaise re-

member in my best affection, and whose wellfare I shall never

cease to comend to God by my best & most earnest praires.

You doe throwly understand by our generall letters ye estate

of things hear, which indeed is very pitifull; espetialy by wante

of shiping, and not seeing means lickly, much less certaine, of

having it provided; though withal! ther be great want of money

& means to doe needfull things.  Mr. Pickering, you know

before this, will not defray a peny hear; though Robart Gush-

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                59

man presumed of I know not how many 1001i. from him, &

I know not whom.  Yet it seems strange yt we should be put

to him to receive both his & his partners adventer, and yet

Mr. Weston write unto him, yt in regard of it, he hath drawne

upon him a 1001i. more.  But ther is in this some misterie,

as indeed it seems ther is in ye whole course.  Besids, wheras

diverse are to pay in some parts of their moneys yet behinde,

they refuse to doe it, till they see shiping provided, or a course

taken for it.  Neither doe I thinke is ther a man hear would pay

any thing, if he had againe his money in his purse.  You

know right well we depended on Mr. Weston alone, and upon

such means as he would procure for this commone bussines;

and when we had in hand another course with ye Dutchmen,

broke it of at his motion, and upon ye conditions by him shortly

after propounded.  He did this in his love I know, but things

appeare not answerable from him hitherto.  That he should have

first have put in his moneys, is thought by many to have

been but fitt, but yt I can well excuse, he being a marchante

and haveing use of it to his benefite; wheras others, if it had

been in their hands, would have consumed it.  [30] But yt he

should not but have had either shipping ready before this time,

or at least certaine means, and course, and ye same knowne to

us for it, or have taken other order otherwise, cannot in my

conscience be excused.  I have heard yt when he hath been

moved in the bussines, he hath put it of from him selfe, and

referred it to ye others;* and would come to Georg Morton,

& enquire news of him aboute things, as if he had scarce been

some accessarie unto it.  Wether he hath failed of some helps

from others which he expected, and so be not well able to goe

through with things, or whether he hath feared least you should

be ready too Boone & so encrease ye charge of shiping above

yt is meete, or whether he have thought by withhoulding to put

 *  Yowthers in the manuscript, an illegibly written word, doubtless intended

for "ye others."

60                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

us upon straits, thinking yt therby Mr. Brewer and Mr. Picker-

ing would be drawne by importunitie to doe more, or what

other misterie is in it, we know not; but sure 1ve are yt things

are not answerable to such an occasion.  Mr. Weston maks

himselfe mery with our endeavors about buying a ship, but

we have done nothing in this but with good reason, as I am

perswaded, nor yet that I know in any thing els, save in those

tow; ye one, that we imployed Robart Cushman, who is known

(though a good man, & of spetiall abilities in his kind, yet)

most unfitt to deale for other men, by reason of his singularitie,

and too great indifferancie for any conditions, and for (to speak

truly) that* we have had nothing from him but termes & pre-

sumptions.  The other, yt we have so much relyed, by implicite

faith as it were, upon generalities, without seeing ye perticuler

course & means for so waghtie an affaire set down unto us.

For shiping, Mr. Weston, it should seeme, is set upon hireing,

which yet I wish he may presently effecte; but I see litle hope

of help from hence if so it be.  Of Mr. Brewer you know what

to expecte.  I doe not thinke Mr. Pickering will ingage, ex-

cepte in ye course of buying, in former letters specified.  Aboute

ye conditions, you have our reasons for our judgments of what is

agreed.  And let this spetially be borne in minde, yt the greatest

parte of ye Collonie is like to be imployed constantly, not upon

dressing ther perticuler land & building houses, but upon fish-

ing, trading, &c.  So as ye land & house will be but a trifell

for advantage to ye adventurers, and yet the devission of it

a great discouragmente to ye planters, who would with singuler

care make it comfortable with borowed houres from their sleep.

The same consideration of comone imploymente constantly by

the most is a good reason not to have ye 2. daies in a weeke

denyed ye few planters for private use, which yet is subordinate

to comone good.  Consider also how much unfite that you &

your liks must serve a new prentishipe of 7. years, and not a

*This word is enclosed in brackets in the manuscript.

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                61

daies freedome from taske. Send me word what persons are

to goe, who of usefull faculties, & how many, & perticulerly

of every thing.  I know you wante not a minde.  I am sorie

you have not been at London all this while, but ye provissions

could not wante you.  Time will suffer me to write no more;

fare you & yours well allways in ye Lord, in whom I rest.

Yours to use,


An other letter from sundrie of them at ye same time.

[31] To their loving freinds John Carver and Robart Cush-

man, these, &c.

     Good bretheren, after salutations, &c.  We received diverse

letters at ye coming of Mr. Nash & our pilott, which is a great

incouragmente unto us, and for whom we hop after times will

minister occasion of praising God; and indeed had you not

sente him, many would have been ready to fainte and goe

backe.  Partly in respecte of ye new conditions which have bene

taken up by you, which all men are against, and partly in

regard of our owne inabillitie to doe anyone of those many

waightie bussineses you referr to us here.  For ye former

wherof, wheras Robart Cushman desirs reasons for our dislike,

promising therupon to alter ye same, or els saing we should

thinke he hath no brains, we desire him to exercise them

therin, refering him to our pastors former reasons, and them

to ye censure of ye godly wise.  But our desires are that you

will not entangle your selvs and us in any such unreasonable

courses as those are, viz. yt the marchants should have ye halfe

of mens houses and lands at ye dividente; and that persons

should be deprived of ye 2. days in a we eke agreed upon, yea

every momente of time for their owne perticuler; by reason

wherof we cannot conceive why any should carie servants for

their own help and comfort; for that we can require no more

of them then all men one of another.  This we have only by

62                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

relation from Mr. Nash, & not from any writing of your owne,

& therfore hope you. have not proceeded farr in so great a

thing without us.  But requiring you not to exseed the bounds

of your comission, which was to proceed upon ye things or con-

ditions agred upon and expressed in writing (at your going

over about it), we leave it, not without marveling, that your

selfe, as you write, knowing how smale a thing troubleth our

consultations, and how few, as you fear, understands the

busnes aright, should trouble us with such matters as these

are, &c.

      Salute Mr. Weston from us, in whom we hope we are not

deceived; we pray you make known our estate unto him, and

if you thinke good shew him our letters, at least tell him (yt

under God) we much relie upon him & put our confidence in

him; and, as your selves well know, that if he had not been

an adventurer with us, we had not taken it in hand; presuming

that if he had not seene means to accomplish it, he would not

have begune it; so we hope in our extremitie he will so farr

help us as our expectation be no way made frustrate concern-

ing him.  Since therfore, good brethren, we have plainly

opened ye state of things with us in this matter, you will, &c.

Thus beseeching ye Ailmightie, who is allsufficiente to raise

us out of this depth of dificulties, to assiste us herein; raising

such means by his providence and fatherly care for us, his pore

children & servants, as we may with comforte behould ye hand

of our God for good towards us in this our bussines, which we

undertake in his name & fear, we take leave & remaine

    Your perplexed, yet hopfull

June 10. New Stille,                         bretheren,

Ano: 1620.                     S. F. E. W.    W. B. J. A.*

*In Governor Bradford's Collection of Letters, these subscribers are thus



1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                63

A letter of Robart Cushmans to them.

Brethern, I understand by letters & passagess yt have come

to me, that ther are great discontents, & dislike of my proceed-

ings amongst you.  Sorie I am to hear it, yet contente to beare

it, as not doubting but yt partly by writing, and more princi-

pally by word when we shall come togeather, I shall satisfie

any reasonable man.  I have been perswaded [32] by some,

espetialy this bearer, to come and clear things unto you; but

as things now stand I canot be absente one day, excepte I

should hazard all ye viage.  Neither conceive I any great good

would come of it.  Take then, brethern, this as a step to give

you contente.  First, for your dislike of ye alteration of one

clause in ye conditions, if you conceive it right, ther can be no

blame lye on me at all.  For ye articles first brought over by

John Carver were never seene of any of ye adventurers hear,

excepte Mr. Weston, neither did any of them like them because

of that clause; nor Mr. Weston him selfe, after he had well

considered it.  But as at ye first ther was 500li.  withdrawne by

Sr. Georg Farrer and his brother upon that dislike, so all ye

rest would have withdrawne (Mr. Weston excepted) if we had

not altered yt clause.  Now whilst we at Leyden conclude upon

points, as we did, we reckoned without our host, which was

not my falte.  Besids, I shewed you by a letter ye equitie of

yt condition, & our inconveniences, which might be sett against

all Mr. Rob: inconveniences, that without ye alteratIon of yt

clause, we could neither have means to gett thither, nor supplie

wherby to subsiste when we were ther.  Yet notwithstanding

all those reasons, which were not mine, but other mens wiser

then my selfe, without answer to anyone of them, here cometh

over many quirimonies, and complaints against me, of lording

it over my brethern, and making conditions fitter for theeves

& bondslaves then honest men, and that of my owne head I

did what I list.  And at last a paper of reasons, framed against

64                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

yt clause in ye conditions, which as yey were delivered me open,

so my answer is open to you all.  And first, as they are no

other but inconveniences, such as a man might frame 20. as

great on ye other side, and yet prove nor disprove nothing by

them, so they misse & mistake both ye very ground of ye article

and nature of ye project.  For, first, it is said, that if ther had

been no divission of houses & lands, it had been better for ye

poore.  True, and yt showeth ye inequalitie of ye condition; we

should more respecte him yt ventureth both his money and his

person, then him yt ventureth but his person only.

     2.  Consider wheraboute we are, not giveing almes, but

furnishing a store house; no one shall be porer then another

for 7. years, and if any be rich, none can be pore.  At ye least,

we must not in such bussines crie, Pore, pore, mercie, mercie.

Charitie hath it life in wraks, not in venturs; you are by this

most in a hopefull pitie of makeing, therfore complaine not be-

fore you have need.

     3.  This will hinder ye building of good and faire houses,

contrarie to ye advise of pollitiks.  A. So we would have it;

our purpose is to build for ye presente such houses as, if need

be, we may with litle greefe set a fire, and rune away by the

lighte; our riches shall not be in pompe, but in strenght; if

God send us riches, we will imploye them to provid more men,

ships, munition, &c.  You may see it amongst the best pollitiks,

that a comonwele is readier to ebe then to flow, when once fine

houses and gay cloaths come up.

      4.  The Govet may prevente excess in building.  A.  But if

it be on all men beforehand resolved on, to build mean houses,

ye Gover laboure is spared.

      5.  All men are not of one condition.  A.  If by condition

you mean wealth, you are mistaken; if you mean by condi-

tion, qualities, then I say he that is not contente his neighbour

shall have as good a house, fare, means, &c. as him selfe, is

not of a good qualitie.  2ly.  Such retired persons, as have an

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                65

eie only to them selves, are fitter to come wher catching is,

then closing; and are fitter to live alone, then in any societie,

either civil or religious.

     6.  It will be of litle value, scarce worth 5li.  A.  True, it

may be not worth halfe 5li.  [33]  If then so smale a thing

will content them, why strive we thus aboute it, and give

them occasion to suspecte us to be worldly & covetous?  I

will not say what I have heard since these complaints came

first over.

     7.  Our freinds with us yt adventure mind not their owne

profite, as did ye old adventurers.  A.  Then they are better

then we, who for a litle matter of profite are readie to draw

back, and it is more apparente brethern looke too it, that make

profite your maine end; repente of this, els goe not least you

be like Jonas to Tarshis.  21y.  Though some of them mind

not their profite, yet others doe mind it; and why not as well

as we?  venturs are made by all sorts of men, and we must

labour to give them all contente, if we can.

     8.  It will break ye course of comunitie, as may be showed

by many reasons.  A.  That is but said, and I say againe, it

will best foster comunion, as may be showed by many reasons.

     9.  Great profite is like to be made by trucking, fishing, &c.

A.  As it is better for them, so for us; for halfe is ours, besids

our living still upon it, and if such profite in yt way come, our

labour shall be ye less on ye land, and our houses and lands

must & will be of less value.

     10.  Our hazard is greater then theirs.  A. True, but doe

they put us upon it?  doe they urge or egg us?  hath not

ye motion & resolution been always in our selves?  doe they

any more then in seeing us resolute if we had means, help us

to means upon equall termes & conditions?  If we will not

goe, they are content to keep their moneys.  Thus I have

pointed at a way to loose those knots, which I hope you will

consider seriously, and let me have no more stirre about them.

66                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

Now furder, I hear a noise of slavish conditions by me made;

but surly this is all that I have altered, and reasons I have sent

you.  If you mean it of ye 2. days in a week for perticuler, as

some insinuate, you are deceived; you may have 3. days in a

week for me if you will.  And when I have spoken to ye ad-

venturers of times of working, they have said they hope we are

men of discretion & conscience, and so fitte to be trusted our

selves with that.  But indeed ye ground of our proceedings at

Leyden was mistaken, and so here is nothing but tottering

every day, &c.

     As for them of Amsterdam I had thought they would as

soone have gone to Rome as with us; for our libertie is to

them as ratts bane, and their riggour as bad to us as ye Spanish

Inquision.  If any practise of mine discourage them, let them

yet draw back; I will undertake they shall have their money

againe presently paid hear.  Or if the company thinke me to

be ye Jonas, let them cast me of before we goe; I shall be con-

tent to stay with good will, having but ye cloaths on my back;

only let us have quietnes, and no more of these clamors; full

litle did I expecte these things which are now come to pass, &c.

Yours,                  R. CUSHMAN.

     But whether this letter of his ever came to their

hands at Leyden I well know not; I rather thinke it

was staied by Mr. Carver & kept by him, forgiving

offence.  But this which follows was ther received;

both which I thought pertenent to recite.

Another of his to ye aforesaid, June 11. 1620.*

Salutations, &c. I received your ler. yesterday, by John

Turner, with another ye same day from Amsterdam by Mr.

*June 11. O. S. is Lord's day, and therefore 't is likely the date of this

letter should be June 10, the same with the date of the letter following. --Prince.

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                67

W. savouring of ye place whenc it came.  And indeed the

many discouragements I find her, togeather with ye demurrs

and retirings ther, had made me to say, I would give up my

accounts to John Carver, & at his comeing aquainte him fully

with all courses, and so leave it quite, with only ye pore cloaths

on my back.  But gathering up my selfe by further considera-

tion, [34] I resolved yet to make one triall more, and to

aquainte Mr. Weston with ye fainted state of our bussines ; and

though he hath been much discontented at some thing amongst

us of late, which hath made him often say, that save for his

promise, he would not meadle at all with ye bussines any more,

yet considering how farr we were plunged into maters, & how

it stood both on our credits & undoing, at ye last he gathered

up him selfe a litle more, & coming to me 2. hours after, he

tould me he would not yet leave it.  And so advising togeather

we resolved to hire a ship, and have tooke liking of one till

Monday, about 60. laste, for a greater we cannot gett, excepte

it be tow great; but a fine ship it is.  And seeing our neer

freinds ther are so streite lased, we hope to assure her without

troubling them any further; and if ye ship fale too small, it

fitteth well yt such as stumble at strawes allready, may rest

them ther a while, least worse blocks come in ye way ere 7.

years be ended.  If you had beaten this bussines so throuly

a month agoe, and write to us as now you doe, we could thus

have done much more conveniently.  But it is as it is; I hope

our freinds ther, if they be quitted of ye ship hire, will be in-

dusced to venture ye more.  All yt I now require is yt salt and

netts may ther be boughte, and for all ye rest we will here pro-

vid it; yet if that will not be, let them but stand for it a month

or tow, and we will take order to pay it all.  Let Mr. Reinholds

tarie ther, and bring ye ship to Southampton.  We have hired'

another pilote here, one Mr. Clarke, who went last year to

Virginia with a ship of kine.

     You shall here distinctly by John Turner, who I thinke shall

68                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

come hence on Tewsday night.  I had thought to have come

with him, to have answerd to my complaints; but I shal lerne

to pass litle for their censurs; and if I had more minde to goe

& dispute & expostulate with them, then I have care of this

waightie bussines, I were like them who live by clamours &

jangling.  But neither my mind nor my body is at libertie to

doe much, for I am fettered with bussines, and had rather study

to be quiet, then to make answer to their exceptions.  If men

be set on it, let them beat ye eair; I hope such as are my sin-

ceire freinds will not thinke but I can give some reason of my

actions.  But of your mistaking aboute ye mater, & other

things tending to this bussines, I shall nexte informe you

more distinctly.  Mean space entreate our freinds not to be

too bussie in answering matters, before they know them.  If

I doe such things as I canot give reasons for, it is like you

have sett a foole aboute your bussines, and so turne ye reproofe

to your selves, & send an other, and let me come againe to my

Combes.  But setting a side my naturall infirmities, I refuse

not to have my cause judged, both of God, & all indifferent

men; and when we come togeather I shall give accounte of

my actions hear.  The Lord, who judgeth justly without

respect of persons, see into ye equitie of my cause, and give

us quiet, peacable, and patient minds, in all these turmoiles,

and sanctifie unto us all crosses whatsoever.  And so I take

my leave of you all, in all love & affection.

     I hope we shall gett all hear ready in 14. days.

Your pore brother,

      June 11. 1620.                   ROBART CUSHMAN.

     Besids these things, ther fell out a differance amongs

those 3. that received [35] the moneys & made ye pro-

vissions in England; for besids these tow formerly men-

tioned sent from Leyden for this end, viz. Mr. Carver

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                69

& Robart Cushman, ther was one chosen in England

to be joyned with them, to make ye provisions for

ye vioage; his name was Mr. Martin, he came from

Billirike in Essexe, from which parts came sundrie

others to goe with them, as also from London & other

places; and therfore it was thought meete & conveniente

by them in Roland that these strangers that were to

goe with them, should apointe one thus to be joyned

with them, not so much for any great need of their

help, as to avoyd all susspition, or jelosie of any

partiallitie.  And indeed their care for giving offence,

both in this & other things afterward, turned to great

inconvenience unto them, as in ye sequell will apeare;

but however it shewed their equall & honest minds.

The provissions were for ye most parte made at South-

hamton, contrarie to Mr. Westons & Robert Cushmas

mind (whose counsells did most concure in all things).

A touch of which things I shall give in a letter of his

to Mr. Carver, and more will appear afterward.

To his loving freind Mr. John Carver, these, &c.

    Loving freind, I have received from you some letters, full

of affection & complaints, and what it is you would have of

me I know not; for your crieing out, Negligence, negligence,

negligence, I marvell why so negligente a man was used in

ye bussines.  Yet know you yt all that I have power to doe

hear, shall not be one hower behind, I warent you.  You have

reference to Mr. Weston to help us with money, more then his

adventure; wher he protesteth but for his promise, he would

not have done any thing.  He saith we take a heady course,

70                        HISTORY OF                        [CHAP. VI.

and is offended yt our provissions are made so farr of; as also

that he was not made aquainted with our quantitie of things;

and saith yt in now being in 3. places, so farr remote, we will,

with going up & downe, and wrangling & expostulating, pass

over ye somer before we will goe.  And to speake ye trueth,

ther is fallen already amongst us a flatt schisme; and we are

redier to goe to dispute, then to sett forwarde a voiage.  I have

received from Leyden since you wente 3. or 4; letters

directed to you, though they only conscerne me.  I will not

trouble you with them.  I always feared ye event of ye Amster-

damers striking in with us.  I trow you must excomunicate

me, or els you must goe without their companie, or we shall

wante no quareling; bit let them pass.  We have reckoned,

it should seeme, without our host; and, counting upon a 150.

persons, ther cannot be founde above 1200li. & odd moneys

of all ye venturs you can reckone, besids some cloath, stock-

ings, & shoes, which are not counted; so we shall come shorte

at least 3. or 400li.  I would have had some thing shortened

at first of beare & other provissions in hope of other adventurs,

& now we could have, both in Amsterd: & Kente, beere inough

to serve our turne, but now we cannot accept it without preju-

dice.  You fear we have begune to build & shall not be able

to make an end; indeed, our courses were never established by

counsell, we may therfore justly fear their standing.  Yea, ther

was a [36] schisme amongst us 3. at ye first.  You wrote to

Mr. Martin, to prevente ye making of ye provissions in Kente,

which he did, and sett downe hi,s resolution how much he would

have of every thing, without respecte to any counsell or excep-

tion.  Surely he yt is in a societie & yet regards not counsell,

may better be a king then a consorte.  To be short, if ther

be not some other dispossition setled unto then yet is, we yt

should be partners of humilitie and peace, shall be examples

of jangling & insulting.  Yet your money which you ther must

have, we will get provided for you instantly.  500li. you say

1620.]                  PLYMOUTH  PLANTATION.                71

will serve; for ye rest which hear & in Holand is to be used,

we may goe scratch for it.  For Mr.* Crabe, of whom you write,

he hath promised to goe with us, yet I tell you I shall not be

without feare till I see him shipped, for he is much opposed,

yet I hope he will not faile.  Thinke ye best of all, and bear

with patience what is wanting, and ye Lord guid us all.

Your loving freind,

London, June 10.                               ROBART CUSHMAN.

Ano: 1620.

    I have bene ye larger in these things, and so shall

crave leave in some like passages following, (thoug

in other things I shal labour to be more contracte,)

that their children may see with what difficulties their

fathers wrastled in going throug these things in their

first beginings, and how God brought them along not-

withstanding all their weaknesses & infirmities.  As

allso that some use may be made hereof in after times

by others in such like waightie imployments; and here-

with I will end this chapter.

Continue on to Book One / Ch. 7 to 10

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